166. The Aspects of Disbelief

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ بَكْرِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ عَنْ أَبِي عَمْرٍو الزُّبَيْرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ وُجُوهِ الْكُفْرِ فِي كِتَابِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ قَالَ الْكُفْرُ فِي كِتَابِ الله عَلَى خَمْسَةِ أَوْجُهٍ فَمِنْهَا كُفْرُ الْجُحُودُ وَالْجُحُودُ عَلَى وَجْهَيْنِ وَالْكُفْرُ بِتَرْكِ مَا أَمَرَ الله وَكُفْرُ الْبَرَاءَةِ وَكُفْرُ النِّعَمِ فَأَمَّا كُفْرُ الْجُحُودِ فَهُوَ الْجُحُودُ بِالرُّبُوبِيَّةِ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ مَنْ يَقُولُ لا رَبَّ وَلا جَنَّةَ وَلا نَارَ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ صِنْفَيْنِ مِنَ الزَّنَادِقَةِ يُقَالُ لَهُمُ الدَّهْرِيَّةُ وَهُمُ الَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ وَما يُهْلِكُنا إِلا الدَّهْرُ وَهُوَ دِينٌ وَضَعُوهُ لأنْفُسِهِمْ بِالإسْتِحْسَانِ عَلَى غَيْرِ تَثَبُّتٍ مِنْهُمْ وَلا تَحْقِيقٍ لِشَيْ‏ءٍ مِمَّا يَقُولُونَ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنْ هُمْ إِلا يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّ ذَلِكَ كَمَا يَقُولُونَ وَقَالَ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا سَواءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَ أَنْذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنْذِرْهُمْ لا يُؤْمِنُونَ يَعْنِي بِتَوْحِيدِ الله تَعَالَى فَهَذَا أَحَدُ وُجُوهِ الْكُفْرِ وَأَمَّا الْوَجْهُ الآخَرُ مِنَ الْجُحُودِ عَلَى مَعْرِفَةٍ وَهُوَ أَنْ يَجْحَدَ الْجَاحِدُ وَهُوَ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ حَقٌّ قَدِ اسْتَقَرَّ عِنْدَهُ وَقَدْ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَجَحَدُوا بِها وَاسْتَيْقَنَتْها أَنْفُسُهُمْ ظُلْماً وَعُلُوًّا وَقَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَكانُوا مِنْ قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُونَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَلَمَّا جاءَهُمْ ما عَرَفُوا كَفَرُوا بِهِ فَلَعْنَةُ الله عَلَى الْكافِرِينَ فَهَذَا تَفْسِيرُ وَجْهَيِ الْجُحُودِ وَالْوَجْهُ الثَّالِثُ مِنَ الْكُفْرِ كُفْرُ النِّعَمِ وَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى يَحْكِي قَوْلَ سُلَيْمَانَ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) هذا مِنْ فَضْلِ رَبِّي لِيَبْلُوَنِي أَ أَشْكُرُ أَمْ أَكْفُرُ وَمَنْ شَكَرَ فَإِنَّما يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ رَبِّي غَنِيٌّ كَرِيمٌ وَقَالَ لَئِنْ شَكَرْتُمْ لأزِيدَنَّكُمْ وَلَئِنْ كَفَرْتُمْ إِنَّ عَذابِي لَشَدِيدٌ وَقَالَ فَاذْكُرُونِي أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لِي وَلا تَكْفُرُونِ وَالْوَجْهُ الرَّابِعُ مِنَ الْكُفْرِ تَرْكُ مَا أَمَرَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِهِ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَإِذْ أَخَذْنا مِيثاقَكُمْ لا تَسْفِكُونَ دِماءَكُمْ وَلا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ مِنْ دِيارِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ ثُمَّ أَنْتُمْ هؤُلاءِ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ وَتُخْرِجُونَ فَرِيقاً مِنْكُمْ مِنْ دِيارِهِمْ تَظاهَرُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِالإثْمِ وَالْعُدْوانِ وَإِنْ يَأْتُوكُمْ أُسارى‏ تُفادُوهُمْ وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْراجُهُمْ أَ فَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ الْكِتابِ وَتَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍ فَما جَزاءُ مَنْ يَفْعَلُ ذلِكَ مِنْكُمْ فَكَفَّرَهُمْ بِتَرْكِ مَا أَمَرَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِهِ وَنَسَبَهُمْ إِلَى الإيمَانِ وَلَمْ يَقْبَلْهُ مِنْهُمْ وَلَمْ يَنْفَعْهُمْ عِنْدَهُ فَقَالَ فَما جَزاءُ مَنْ يَفْعَلُ ذلِكَ مِنْكُمْ إِلا خِزْيٌ فِي الْحَياةِ الدُّنْيا وَيَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ يُرَدُّونَ إِلى‏ أَشَدِّ الْعَذابِ وَمَا الله بِغافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ وَالْوَجْهُ الْخَامِسُ مِنَ الْكُفْرِ كُفْرُ الْبَرَاءَةِ وَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَحْكِي قَوْلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) كَفَرْنا بِكُمْ وَبَدا بَيْنَنا وَبَيْنَكُمُ الْعَداوَةُ وَالْبَغْضاءُ أَبَداً حَتَّى تُؤْمِنُوا بِالله وَحْدَهُ يَعْنِي تَبَرَّأْنَا مِنْكُمْ وَقَالَ يَذْكُرُ إِبْلِيسَ وَتَبْرِئَتَهُ مِنْ أَوْلِيَائِهِ مِنَ الإنْسِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنِّي كَفَرْتُ بِما أَشْرَكْتُمُونِ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَقَالَ إِنَّمَا اتَّخَذْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِ الله أَوْثاناً مَوَدَّةَ بَيْنِكُمْ فِي الْحَياةِ الدُّنْيا ثُمَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ يَكْفُرُ بَعْضُكُمْ بِبَعْضٍ وَيَلْعَنُ بَعْضُكُمْ بَعْضاً يَعْنِي يَتَبَرَّأُ بَعْضُكُمْ مِنْ بَعْضٍ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Bakr ibn Salih from al-Qasim ibn Yazid from abu ‘Amr al-Zubayri who has said the following: “Once I said to abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) ‘Instruct me about the kinds of disbelief (mentioned) in the book of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy.’ The Imam said, ‘Disbelief in the book of Allah is of five kinds: “(1) Of disbelief is denial, which is of two kinds. (2) There is disbelief for disregarding the commands of Allah. (3) Another form of disbelief for disavowing, and (4) disbelief in the bounties is still another form of disbelief. “Disbelief for denial is (a) denial of His Lordship and it is the belief of those who say that there is no Lord, paradise and fire. It is the belief of two kinds of atheism, called Dahriah, who say, ‘It is only time that destroys us.’ (45:23) It is a religion that they made for themselves on the basis of what they felt to be good with out proof and research in any of the things they say. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, ‘It is only what they guess, . . .’ (45:23) their religion is based on mere guessing. Allah has said, ‘Those who deny your message will not believe, whether you warn them or not.’ (2:6) They will not believe in the Oneness of Allah. This is one kind of disbelief. (b) The other kind of denial is denial of knowledge. This is when the denying person denies knowing well the truth that is established before him. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, ‘They rejected the evidence because of their arrogance and injustice, although their souls knew it to be true. . . .’ (27:14) Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, ‘. . . despite the fact that they had been praying for victory over the disbelievers (by the help of the truthful Prophet), they refused to accept this book, even though they knew it (to be the Truth). May Allah condemn those who hide the Truth.” (2:89) This is the explanation of two kinds of disbelief.’ “The third kind of disbelief is disbelief in the bounties as Allah, the Most High, has said quoting Sulayman, ‘. . . This is a favor from my Lord by which He wants to test whether I am grateful or ungrateful. Whoever thanks Allah, does so for his own good. Whoever is ungrateful to Allah should know that my Lord is Self-sufficient and Benevolent.’ (27:40) Allah has said, ‘If you give thanks, I shall give you greater (favors), but if you deny the Truth, know that My retribution is severe.’ (14:7) Allah has said, ‘ . . . remember Me and I shall remember you. Thank Me and do not hide the truth about Me.’ (2:152) “The fourth kind of disbelief is disbelief in the form of disregard of what Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has commanded as in the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, ‘We made a covenant with you that you should not shed each other’s blood or expel each other from your homeland. You accepted and bore witness to this covenant, (2:84) yet you murdered each other and forced a number of your people out of their homeland, helping each other to commit sin and to be hostile to one another. When you had expelled people from their homeland and later they had been made captives (of other people), you then paid their ransom (thinking that it was a righteous deed). Allah forbade you to expel these people in the fust place. Do you believe in one part of the Book and not in the other? [They are called unbelievers due to their disregard of the commands of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, and He has ascribed them to belief but He has not accepted it and it has been of no benefit before Him] and He has said, . Those who behave in this way shall reap disgrace in this world and severe punishment on the Day of Resurrection. Allah is not unaware of things that you do.’ (2:85) “The fifth kind of disbelief is disbelief in the form of disavowing as in the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, quoting Ibrahim (Abraham), ‘We have rejected you. Enmity and hatred will separate us forever unless you believe in Allah only. . . .’ (60:4) This is disavowing. Allah has said when mentioning (the case of) Satan and his friend of man on the Day of Judgment, ‘I did not agree with your belief that I was equal to Allah. . . .’ (14:22) Allah has said, ‘. . . you believe in idols besides Allah, only out of worldly love, but on the Day of Judgment you will reject and condemn each other . . .’ (29:25) That is disavowing each other.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/124)