54. The Appearance [Al-Bada’]

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1 - أبي رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن يحيى العطار، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحجال، عن أبي إسحاق ثعلبة، عن زرارة، عن أحدهما يعني أبا جعفر وأبا عبد الله عليهما السلام قال: ما عبد الله عز وجل بشئ مثل البداء.


1. My father (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Yahya al-`Attar said, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Isa, on the authority of al-Hajjal, on the authority of Ishaq ibn Tha`labahh, on the authority of Zurarah that One of the two, i.e. Abu Ja`far al-Baqir (AS) or Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS), said: “Allah, the Mighty and High, has not been served by anything like the Appearance.”




2 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار، عن أيوب بن نوح، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن سالم، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام، قال: ما عظم الله عز وجل بمثل البداء.


2. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (RA) said: Muhammad ibn al-Hasan alSaffar said, on the authority of Ayyub ibn Nuh, on the authority of Ibn Abu `Umayr, on the authority of Hisham ibn Salim that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: “Allah, the Mighty and High, has not been revered with anything like the Appearance.”




3 - حدثنا محمد بن علي ماجيلويه رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن سالم، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام، قال: ما بعث الله عز وجل نبيا حتى يأخذ عليه ثلاث خصال: الاقرار بالعبودية، وخلع الأنداد، وأن الله يقدم ما يشاء ويؤخر ما يشاء.


3. Muhammad ibn `Ali Majilwayh (RA) said: `Ali ibn Ibrahim said, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ibn Abu `Umayr, on the authority of Hisham ibn Salim, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Muslim that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) “Allah, the Mighty and High, has not sent a Prophet [nabi] until He made a covenant with him regarding these things: that he would serve no god but Allah, that he would reject idols, and that Allah can hasten His decree or delay His Decree.”




4 - وبهذا الإسناد، عن هشام بن سالم وحفص بن البختري وغيرهما، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام في هذه الآية ﴿يمحوا الله ما يشاء ويثبت﴾ قال: فقال: وهل يمحو الله إلا ما كان وهل يثبت إلا ما لم يكن؟!.


4. And with the same chain of transmission, on the authority of Hisham ibn Salim and Hafs ibn al-Bakhtari and other these two, that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) was asked to interpret this verse: Allah makes to pass away and establishes what He pleases. He (AS) said: “Does Allah destroy other than what exists? And does He establish other than that which was nonexistent?”




5 - حدثنا حمزة بن محمد العلوي رحمه الله قال: أخبرنا علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن مرازم بن حكيم، قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: ما تنبأ نبي قط حتى يقر لله عز وجل بخمس: بالبداء والمشية و السجود والعبودية والطاعة.


5. Hamzah ibn Muhammad al-`Alawi (RA) said: `Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim reported to us, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ibn Abu `Umayr, on the authority of Marazim ibn Hukaym that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: “No Prophet claimed to be a prophet until he confirmed his belief in five things with Allah, the Mighty and High: the Appearance, the Will, Prostration, Worship, and Obedience.”




6 - حدثنا حمزة بن محمد العلوي رحمه الله، عن علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن الريان بن الصلت، قال: سمعت الرضا عليه السلام يقول: ما بعث الله نبيا قط إلا بتحريم الخمر، وأن يقر له بالبداء.


6. Hamzah ibn Muhammad al-`Alawi (RA) said, on the authority of `Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim, on the authority of al-Rayyan ibn al-Salt that Al-Rida (AS) said: “Allah has never sent a prophet until he confirmed with Allah that he would forbid alcohol, and that he believed in the Appearance.”




7 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن يعقوب، قال: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس بن عبد الرحمن، عن مالك الجهني قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: لو يعلم الناس ما في القول بالبداء من الأجر ما فتروا عن الكلام فيه.


7. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Ya`qub said: `Ali ibn Ibrahim said, on the authority of Muhammad ibn `Isa, on the authority of Yunus ibn `Abd al-Rahman, on the authority of Malik al-Juhani that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: “If people knew what reward there is in speaking about the Appearnac,e they would never cease speaking about it.”




8 - وبهذا الإسناد، عن يونس، عن منصور بن حازم، قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام هل يكون اليوم شئ لم يكن في علم الله تعالى بالأمس؟ قال: لا، من قال هذا فأخزاه الله، قلت: أرأيت ما كان وما هو كائن إلى يوم القيامة أليس في علم الله؟! قال: بلى قبل أن يخلق الخلق.


8. And with the same chain of transmission, on the authority of Yunus, on the authority of Mansur ibn Hazim that I asked Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS): Is there anything in the knowledge of Allah today that was not there yesterday? He (AS) replied, “No, May Allah disgrace anyone who believes in such things!” I asked, “Is it correct that everything that has happened, and everything that will happen until the Day of Judgment, is known to Allah?” He (AS) replied, “Of course! It was so even before He created the creation.”




9 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن يعقوب، عن الحسين بن محمد بن عامر، عن معلى بن محمد، قال: سئل العالم عليه السلام كيف علم الله؟ قال: علم، وشاء، وأراد، وقدر، وقضى، وأبدى فأمضى ما قضى، وقضى ما قدر، وقدر ما أراد، فبعلمه كانت المشية، وبمشيته كانت الإرادة، وبإرادته كان التقدير، وبتقديره كان القضاء، وبفضائه كان الامضاء، فالعلم متقدم المشية والمشية ثانية، والإرادة ثالثة، والتقدير واقع على القضاء بالامضاء، فلله تبارك وتعالى البداء فيما علم متى شاء وفيما أراد لتقدير الأشياء، فإذا وقع القضاء بالامضاء فلا بداء، فالعلم بالمعلوم قبل كونه، والمشية في المنشأ قبل عينه، والإرادة في المراد قبل قيامه، والتقدير لهذه المعلومات قبل تفصيلها وتوصيلها عيانا وقياما ، والقضاء بالامضاء هو المبرم من المفعولات ذوات الأجسام المدركات بالحواس من ذي لون وريح ووزن وكيل وما دب ودرج من إنس وجن وطير وسباع وغير ذلك مما يدرك بالحواس، فلله تبارك وتعالى فيه البداء مما لا عين له، فإذا وقع العين المفهوم المدرك فلا بداء، والله يفعل ما يشاء، وبالعلم علم الأشياء قبل كونها، وبالمشية عرف صفاتها وحدودها وأنشأها قبل إظهارها وبالإرادة ميز أنفسها في ألوانها و صفاتها وحدودها، وبالتقدير قدر أوقاتها وعرف أولها وآخرها، وبالقضاء أبان للناس أماكنها ودلهم عليها، وبالإمضاء شرح عللها وأبان أمرها، وذلك التقدير العزيز العليم. قال محمد بن علي مؤلف هذا الكتاب أعانه الله على طاعته: ليس البداء كما يظنه جهال الناس بأنه بداء ندامة تعالى الله عن ذلك، ولكن يجب علينا أن نقر لله عز وجل بأن له البداء، معناه أن له أن يبدأ بشئ من خلقه فيخلقه قبل شئ ثم يعدم ذلك الشئ ويبدأ بخلق غيره، أو يأمر بأمر ثم ينهى عن مثله أو ينهى عن شئ ثم يأمر بمثل ما نهى عنه، وذلك مثل نسخ الشرايع وتحويل القبلة وعدة المتوفى عنها زوجها، ولا يأمر الله عباده بأمر في وقت ما إلا وهو يعلم أن الصلاح لهم في ذلك الوقت في أن يأمرهم بذلك، ويعلم أن في وقت آخر الصلاح لهم في أن ينهاهم عن مثل ما أمرهم به، فإذا كان ذلك الوقت أمرهم بما يصلحهم، فمن أقر لله عز وجل بأن له أن يفعل ما يشاء ويعدم ما يشاء ويخلق مكانه ما يشاء، ويقدم ما يشاء ويؤخر ما يشاء، ويأمر بما شاء كيف شاء فقد أقر بالبداء، وما عظم الله عز وجل بشئ أفضل من الاقرار بأن له الخلق والأمر، والتقديم، والتأخير، وإثبات ما لم يكن ومحو ما قد كان، والبداء هو رد على اليهود لأنهم قالوا: إن الله قد فرغ من الأمر فقلنا: إن الله كل يوم في شأن، يحيى ويميت ويرزق ويفعل ما يشاء، والبداء ليس من ندامة، و هو ظهور أمر، يقول العرب: بدا لي شخص في طريقي أي ظهر، قال الله عز وجل: ﴿وبدا لهم من الله ما لم يكونوا يحتسبون﴾ أي ظهر لهم، ومتى ظهر لله تعالى ذكره من عبد صلة لرحمه زاد في عمره، ومتى ظهر له منه قطيعة لرحمه نقص من عمره، ومتى ظهر له من عبد إتيان الزنا نقص من رزقه وعمره، ومتى ظهر له منه التعفف عن الزنا زاد في رزقه وعمره.


9. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Ya`qub said, on the authority of al-Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn `Amir, on the authority of Mua`alla ibn Muhammad that The Learned (AS) was asked: “How is the knowledge of Allah?” He (AS) replied, He knows, He wills, He intends, He decrees, He predestines, and He makes to appear. Therefore, He exercise what He predestines, He predestines what He decrees, and He decrees what He intends. Thus, through His Knowledge is the Divine Will, through His Will is the Intent, through His Intent is the Divine Decree, through His Decree is predestination, and through His Predestination is the Exercise of His Will. Therefore, the Knowledge (of Allah) has precedence over the Will (of Allah), the Will (of Allah) is second, and the Intent (of Allah) is third. The Divine Decree is manifest in predestination through the Exercise (of Allah’s Will). For Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, is the Appearance in whatever He knows, whenever He wills, and in whatever He intends for the decree of the things. Hence, if predestination occurs with authorization then there is no appearance. So the knowledge of the known exists before it. The Will in the originated is prior to itself. The Intent in the intended precedes its existence. The Decree for these known things is prior to their detachment and joining, evidently and obviously. Predestination through exercise is inescapable from the effective possessors of bodies that can be perceived through senses like color, smell, weight and measure, and whatever crawls or walks of the humans, the jinn, the birds, the beasts, and other than that which are perceived through senses. Therefore, for Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, is the Appearance, of what has no existence, However, if the perceived conceptual existence occurs then there is no Appearance. Allah does whatever he wills, and through His Knowledge He knows all things prior to their existence. Through the Divine Will He identifies their attributes and limits; and originate them before their disclosure. Through the Intent He differentiates them in their colors, attributes and limits. Through the Divine Decree He decrees their times, and knows their beginning and their end. Through Predestination He manifested the places of mankind and led them to these. Through the Exercise of His Will He explained their reasons for being, and manifested their mattes. That is the decree of the Honorable, the All-Knowing. Muhammad ibn `Ali the Compiler of this book, may Allah help him in His obedience, says: The Appearance is not the way the ignorant think, namely, that He appears to regret. Exalted is Allah from that. However, it is mandatory upon us to confirm with Allah, the Mighty and High, that He has the power of Appearance. The meaning of that is: Verily, it is for Him to start something from His Creation to create it before something, and then that thing becomes nonexistent, and He begins with something other than it. Or He orders to do something then stops from doing it, or orders to stop from something, then orders to do what He had stopped. The examples of that would be the abrogation of previous Shari`ahs (to Islam), changing of the direction of Qiblah, and the prescribed period [`iddat] of a woman whose husband has passed away. Allah does not command His Servants for a matter in a specified time except when He knows that it is in their interest in that time. And He knows that in another time their interest is in stopping them from the like of which He commanded them to do. Therefore, in all times He commands them for what is in their interest. Thus, whoever confirms for Allah, the Mighty and High, that for Him is to do what He wills, to destroy what He wills, to create in its place what He wills, to advance what He wills, to retard what He wills, to command what He wills and how He wills, to command what He wills and how He wills, then he has confirmed the doctrine of the Appearance. Allah, the Mighty and High, has not revered anything better than the confirmation that for Him is the creation, the command, advancement, and to retard and establishing what does not exist, and to destroy what does exist. The belief in the Appearance is a rejection of the Jews, because they said: Verily, Allah concluded the affair. Hence, we said: Verily, Allah is in a new manifestation everyday. He gives life, and He kills. He gives sustenance, and does what He wills. The Appearance is not from regret. It is certainly manifestation of a matter. The Arabs say: `A man appeared in my way’ i.e. manifested. Allah, the Mighty and High said: And there shall appear to them from Allah that which they had not been expecting, i.e. become plain to them. Whenever Allah, Exalted be His Remembrance, observes that a servant observes the ties of kinship, He increases his life; and whenever He observes that a servant severs the ties of kinship, He decreases his life. Whenever Allah observes that a servant fornicates, He reduces his life. Whenever Allah observes that a servant fornicates, He reduces his sustenance and shortens his life; and whenever he observes that a servant is chaste, He increases his sustenance and lengthens his life.




10 - ومن ذلك قول الصادق عليه السلام: ما بدا لله بداء كما بدا له في إسماعيل ابني، يقول: ما ظهر لله أمر كما ظهر له في إسماعيل ابني إذ اخترمه قبلي ليعلم بذلك أنه ليس بإمام بعدي.


10. The aforementioned is supported by the following tradition: Al-Sadiq (AS) said:“Nothing appeared to Allah regarding my son Isma`il when He cut him off by death before me, so that it may be known that he was not the Imam after me.”




11 - وقد روي لي من طريق أبي الحسين الأسدي رضي الله عنه في ذلك شئ غريب، وهو أنه روى أن الصادق عليه السلام قال: ما بدا لله بداء كما بدا له في إسماعيل أبي إذا أمر أباه إبراهيم بذبحه ثم فداه بذبح عظيم، وفي الحديث على الوجهين جميعا عندي نظر، إلا أني أوردته لمعنى لفظ البداء والله الموفق للصواب باب المشيئة والإرادة


11. The following astonishing tradition has been related to me on the authority of Abu allHusayn al-Asadi (RA) that Al-Sadiq (AS) said: “Nothing appeared to Allah as regards to my father Isma`il (AS) when He ordered His father Ibrahim (AS) to slaughter him, but He ransomed him with a momentous sacrifice.” The Compiler of his book says: In this tradition with both its meanings, I have my consideration. However, I have transmitted them here for the meaning of the word `appearance’ [bada’]. Allah is the Director to the correctness.