10. Seventy-Three Decrees Regarding Women Differing from Those for Men

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24-12 حدثنا أحمد بن الحسن القطان قال: حدثنا الحسن بن علي العسكري قال: حدثنا أبوعبد الله محمد بن زكريا البصري قال: حدثنا جعفر بن محمد بن عمارة، عن أبيه عن جابر بن يزيد الجعفي قال: سمعت أبا جعفر محمد بن علي الباقر عليهما السلام يقول: ليس على النساء أذان ولا إقامة، ولا جمعة، ولا جماعة، ولا عيادة المريض، ولا اتباع الجنائز، ولا إجهار بالتلبية، ولا الهرولة بين الصفا والمروة، ولا استلام الحجر الاسود، ولا دخول الكعبة، ولا الحلق إنما يقصرن من شعورهن، ولا تولى المرأة القضاء، ولا تولى الامارة، ولا تستشار، ولا تذبح إلا من اضطرار، وتبدء في الوضوء بباطن الذراع والرجل بظاهره، ولا تمسح كما يمسح الرجال بل عليها أن تلقى الخمار من موضع مسح رأسها في صلاة الغداة والمغرب، وتمسح عليه وفي سائر الصلوات تدخل إصبعها فتمسح على رأسها من غير أن تلقى عنها خمارها فاذا قامت في صلاتها ضمت رجليها ووضعت يديها على صدرهـا، وتضـعيديها في ركوعها على فخذيها، وتجلس إذا أرادت السجود سجدت لاطئة بالارض، وإذا رفعت رأسها من السجود جلست ثم نهضت إلى القيام، وإذا قعدت للتشهد رفعت رجليها وضمت فخذيها، وإذا سبحت عقدت بالانامل لانهن مسؤولات، وإذا كانت لها إلى الله عز وجل حاجة صعدت فوق بيتها وصلت ركعتين وكشفت رأسها إلى السماء فإنها إذا فعلت ذلك استجاب الله لها ولم يخبها، وليس عليها غسل الجمعة في السفر، ولا يجوز لها تركه في الحضر، ولا يجوز شهادة النساء في شيء في الحدود، ولا يجوز شهادتهن في الطلاق، ولا في رؤية الهلال، وتجوز شهادتهن فيما لا يحل للرجل النظر إليه، وليس للنساء من سروات الطريق شيء ولهن جنبتاه، ولا يجوز لهن نزول الغرف، ولا تعلم الكتابة، ويستحب لهن تعلم المغزل، وسورة النور، ويكره لهن تعلم سورة يوسف، وإذا ارتدت المرأة عن الاسلام استتيبت، فإن تابت وإلا خلدت في السجن، ولا تقتل كما يقتل الرجل إذا ارتد، ولكنها تستخدم خدمة شديدة، وتمنع من الطعام والشراب إلا ما تمسك به نفسها، ولا تطعم إلا جشب الطعام ولا تكسى إلا غليظ الثياب وخشنها، وتضرب على الصلاة والصيام، ولا جزية على النساء، وإذا حضر ولادة المرأة وجب إخراج من في البيت من النساء كيلا يكن أول ناظر إلى عورتها، ولا يجوز للمرأة الحائض ولا الجنب الحضور عند تلقين الميت لان الملائكة تتأذى بهما، ولا يجوز لهما إدخال الميت قبره، وإذا قامت المرأة من مجلسها فلا يجوز للرجل أن يجلس فيه حتى يبرد، وجهاد المرأة حسن التبعل وأعظم الناس حقا عليها زوجها، وأحق الناس بالصـلاةعليها إذا ماتت زوجها، ولا يجوز للمرأة أن تنكشف بين يدي اليهودية والنصرانية، لانهن يصفن ذلك لازواجهن، ولا يجوز لها أن تتطيب إذا خرجت من بيتها، ولا يجوز لها أن تتشبه بالرجال لان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله لعن المتشبهين من الرجال بالنساء ولعن المتشبهات من النساء بالرجال، ولا يجوز للمرأة أن تعطل نفسها ولو أن تعلق في عنقها خيطا، ولا يجوز أن ترى أظافيرها بيضاء، ولو أن تمسحها بالحناء مسحا، ولا تخضب يديها في حيضها لانه يخاف عليها الشيطان، وإذا أرادت المرأة الحاجة وهي في صلاتها صفقت بيديها والرجل يومي برأسه وهو في صلاته ويشير بيده ويسبح، ولا يجوز للمرأة أن تصلي بغير خمار إلا أن تكون أمة فانها تصلى بغير خمار مكشوفة الرأس، ويجوز للمرأة لبس الديباج والحرير في غير صلاة وإحرام، وحرم ذلك على الرجال إلا في الجهاد، ويجوز أن تتختم بالذهب وتصلي فيه، وحرم ذلك على الرجال [إلا في الجهاد] قال النبي صلى الله عليه وآله "يا علي لا تتختم بالذهب فانه زينتك في الجنة، ولا تلبس الحرير فإنه لباسك في الجنة" ولا يجوز للمرأة في مالها عتق ولا بر إلا باذن زوجها، ولا يجوز لها أن تصوم تطوعا إلا باذن زوجها، ولا يجوز للمرأة ان تصافح غير ذي محرم إلا من وراء ثوبها، ولا تبايع إلا من وراء ثوبها، ولا يجوز أن تحج تطوعا إلا باذن زوجها،ولا يجوز للمرأة أن تدخل الحمام فان ذلك محرم عليها، ولا يجوز للمرأة ركوب السرج إلا من ضرورة، أو في سفر، وميراث المرأة نصف ميراث الرجل، وديتها نصف دية الرجل وتقابل المرأة الرجل في الجراحات حتى تبلغ ثلث الدية فاذا زادت على الثلث ارتفع الرجل وسفلت المرأة، وإذا صلت المرأة وحدها مع الرجل قامت خلفه ولم تقم بجنبه، وإذا ماتت المرأة وقف المصـليعليها عند صدرها ومن الرجل إذا صلى عليه عند رأسه،وإذا دخلت المرأة القبر وقف زوجها في موضع يتناول وركها،ولا شفيع للمرأة أنجح عند ربها من رضا زوجها، ولما ماتت فاطمة عليها السلام قام عليها أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام وقال: "اللهم إني راض عنه ابنة نبيك اللهم إنها قد أوحشت فأنسها، اللهم إنها قد هجرت فصلها، اللهم إنها قد ظلمت فاحكم لها وأنت خير الحاكمين ".


24-12 Ahmad ibn al-Hassan al-Qat’tan narrated that Al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Askari quoted Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Basry, on the authority of Ja’far ibn Muhammad ibn Ammara, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Jabir ibn Yazid al-Jo’afy that he had heard Aba Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ali al-Baqir (MGB) say, “Women are not required to say the general and the specific calls to prayer. They are not required to attend the Friday or the congregational prayers. Women are not required to visit the ill, nor are they required to attend funeral processions. Women are not required to say the Takbirs aloud nor are they required to run between the Saffa and the Marva hills in Mecca. Women are not required to kiss the Black Stone nor are they required to enter the Ka’ba. Women are not required to shave their heads. Rather, they may shorten their hair. Women should not be in charge of the position of the judge nor should they be in charge of leadership or counselor. Women should not slaughter unless at times of necessity. Women should start to make ablutions by washing from the interior part of the hand while men should wash the exterior part. Women are not required to wash their feet and head as men do when making ablutions. Rather, they should uncover their head for washing their hair as part of the ablutions for prayer for the morning and evening prayers, and only put their hands under their veils to wet their hair for making ablutions for other prayers. When women stand up to say their prayers they should put the two feet together and stick their upper arms to their breast. They should stick their two hands to their thighs whenbowing down. When they want to go to the position of prostration, they should sit down first and then they should stick to the ground when they prostrate. When they lift their head up from prostration, they should first sit down and then attempt to stand up. When they sit down to say the Tashahhud, they should stick their thighs together. Women should count the glorifications which they say using their fingers since they are responsible. When women want to ask the Honorable the Exalted God for something, they can go to the roof of their house, say two units of prayers, and raise their head up towards the sky. Once they do that the Honorable the Exalted God would not turn them down and fulfill their needs. Women are not required to perform the Friday ritual ablutions (wuzu) while they are on a journey. However, they should not abandon it when they are in their homeland. Women cannot be relied upon as witnesses in any issues punishable by religious law . Women cannot be relied upon as witnesses in issues regarding divorce or seeing the new moon. However, they could be relied upon as witnesses in other affairs in which men are not allowed to investigate by looking (such as the issue of menstruation or virginity). Women should not walk in the middle of the walkways. Rather they should walk on the sides. Women are not allowed to settle in the upper chambers over-looking the roads. It is not necessary for women to learn how to write. It is good for them to learn wheel-spinning and the Chapter Nur. It is not advisable for them to learn the Chapter Yusuf. If a woman commits apostasy and renunciates her religious faith, then she should be asked to repent. It would be fine if she repents. However, if she doesn’t accept to repent, then she should be held in custody. She should not be killed as men of a similar status should be. She should be forced to work hard in prison and given minimal nourishment of food and water. She should be given rough clothes to wear and beaten up until she prays and fasts. Women are not required to pay the Jizya (the poll-tax ). Other women should be asked to leave the room when the time for giving birth to a child arrives for a woman, so that they do not unnecessarily look at her private parts. It is not proper for women who are menstruating or impure due to sex be present when a dead person is being dictated to (Talqin) since the angels would be disturbed. It is also not proper for such women to place the dead in the grave. A man should not sit at the place where a woman has been sitting before some time passes by, and that place is no longer warm due to her sitting there.The holy war for a woman is to take good care of her husband. A woman’s husband has the most rights incumbent upon her than anyone else. A woman’s husband is the best person to say prayers upon her (his wife) deadbody. It is not allowed for a Muslim woman to become naked in front of a Jewish or Christian woman, because they may describe her looks for their husbands. A woman is not allowed to put on perfume when she leaves home. It is not allowed for a woman to make herself look like men, since God’s Prophet (MGB) has cursed men who make themselves up to look like women and women who make themselves up to look like men. A woman should not remain without an adornment even if it be just a string which she wears on her neck. A woman should not leave her fingers plain white and should at least dye them with henna . However, a woman should not dye her hands while she is menstruating since there is the fear that Satan may bother her. When a woman has a need during her prayers she should clap her hands together. However, when a man needs something during his prayers he can point at it with his head and hand and say God’s glorifications. A woman is not allowed to pray without a veil except for a female slave who can say her prayers without a veil. Women are allowed to put on fine silk and heavy brocade clothes when they are not praying or not in a state of ritual consecration wearing the Ihram. However, men are forbidden to do so unless they are attending a holy war. Women are allowed to wear gold rings and pray with them on. However, men are forbidden to do so (unless they are attending a holy war).The Prophet (MGB) said, ‘O Ali! Do not wear gold since that is what will be your adornment in Paradise. Do not wear silk clothes since that will be your clothes in Paradise.’ A woman is not allowed to give charity of free her own slaves unless with her husband’s permission. A woman is not allowed to fast the recommendable fasts unless with her husband’s permission. A woman is not allowed to shake hands with unfamiliar men unless her hands are covered up. A woman is not allowed to make pledge of allegiance with her hands unless her hands are covered up. A woman is not allowed to go to recommendable Hajj without her husband’s permission. A woman should not go to a bath house since this if forbidden for her. A woman should not ride on a saddle unless it is absolutely necessary or on a trip. A woman’s inheritance will be half of that of a man. The blood money for a woman will be half of that of a man. In retribution for injury to, or loss of, bodily organs men and women shall be treated equally unless the blood money for the lost organ is a third or more than a third of the full blood money, in which case a woman’s blood money shall be half of a man’s.When a woman stands to pray alone with a man she should stand up behind him not by his side.When a woman dies they should pray for her while standing at her chest whereas when a man dies they should pray for him while standing at his head. When they place a woman in the grave her husband should stand in a place from which he can take her thighs and bury her. There will be no intercession on behalf of a woman with her Lord unless her husband is pleased with her.When Fatimah (MGB) passed away, the Commander of the Faithful (MGB) stood up next to her and said, ‘O God! I am pleased with her - the daughter of your Prophet. O God! Indeed I am Fearful. So please calm her down. O God! She departed us to join him (MGB). O God! She was oppressed. You be the Judge as you are the best of all the judges!’