60. The Imamat (Leadership with Divine Authority) is a Covenant from Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, Delivered as such by the preceding Imam to the succeeding Imam (a.s.) one after the other

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1ـ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْوَشَّاءِ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي عُمَرُ بْنُ أَبَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ كُنْتُ عِنْدَ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَذَكَرُوا الاوْصِيَاءَ وَذَكَرْتُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ فَقَالَ لا وَالله يَا أَبَا مُحَمَّدٍ مَا ذَاكَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا هُوَ إِلا إِلَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يُنْزِلُ وَاحِداً بَعْدَ وَاحِدٍ.


1. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Washsha’who has said that ‘Umar ibn Aban has narrated to me from abu Basir who has said the following. “Once I was in the presence of abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.). People mentioned the executors of the will and I mentioned Isma‘il. The Imam (a.s.) said, “No, I swear by Allah. O abu Muhammad, it is not up to us. It is up to no one except Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High. He makes them descend one after the other.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/183)



2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ الاشْعَثِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ أَ تَرَوْنَ الْمُوصِيَ مِنَّا يُوصِي إِلَى مَنْ يُرِيدُ لا وَالله وَلَكِنْ عَهْدٌ مِنَ الله وَرَسُولِهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) لِرَجُلٍ فَرَجُلٍ حَتَّى يَنْتَهِيَ الامْرُ إِلَى صَاحِبِهِ.


الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جُمْهُورٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مِنْهَالٍ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ الاشْعَثِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مِثْلَهُ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad ibn ‘Uthman from ‘Amr ibn al-Ash‘ath who has said that I heard abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) say the following. “Do you think that a testator of us chooses whoever he wants as the executor of his will? No, I swear by Allah, it is not so. It is a covenant from Allah and His Messenger to a man and then to next man until the matter is delivered to its rightful owner.” Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Jumhur from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Minhal from ‘Amr ibn al-Ash‘ath from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) a similar hadith.




3ـ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ بَكْرِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ عَنْ عَيْثَمِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ الامَامَةَ عَهْدٌ مِنَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مَعْهُودٌ لِرِجَالٍ مُسَمَّيْنَ لَيْسَ لِلامَامِ أَنْ يَزْوِيَهَا عَنِ الَّذِي يَكُونُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ إِنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى أَوْحَى إِلَى دَاوُدَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنِ اتَّخِذْ وَصِيّاً مِنْ أَهْلِكَ فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ سَبَقَ فِي عِلْمِي أَنْ لا أَبْعَثَ نَبِيّاً إِلا وَلَهُ وَصِيٌّ مِنْ أَهْلِهِ وَكَانَ لِدَاوُدَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَوْلادٌ عِدَّةٌ وَفِيهِمْ غُلامٌ كَانَتْ أُمُّهُ عِنْدَ دَاوُدَ وَكَانَ لَهَا مُحِبّاً فَدَخَلَ دَاوُدُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَلَيْهَا حِينَ أَتَاهُ الْوَحْيُ فَقَالَ لَهَا إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَوْحَى إِلَيَّ يَأْمُرُنِي أَنِ أَتَّخِذَ وَصِيّاً مِنْ أَهْلِي فَقَالَتْ لَهُ امْرَأَتُهُ فَلْيَكُنِ ابْنِي قَالَ ذَلِكَ أُرِيدُ وَكَانَ السَّابِقُ فِي عِلْمِ الله الْمَحْتُومِ عِنْدَهُ أَنَّهُ سُلَيْمَانُ فَأَوْحَى الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى إِلَى دَاوُدَ أَنْ لا تَعْجَلْ دُونَ أَنْ يَأْتِيَكَ أَمْرِي فَلَمْ يَلْبَثْ دَاوُدُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنْ وَرَدَ عَلَيْهِ رَجُلانِ يَخْتَصِمَانِ فِي الْغَنَمِ وَالْكَرْمِ فَأَوْحَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَى دَاوُدَ أَنِ اجْمَعْ وُلْدَكَ فَمَنْ قَضَى بِهَذِهِ الْقَضِيَّةِ فَأَصَابَ فَهُوَ وَصِيُّكَ مِنْ بَعْدِكَ فَجَمَعَ دَاوُدُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وُلْدَهُ فَلَمَّا أَنْ قَصَّ الْخَصْمَانِ قَالَ سُلَيْمَانُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَا صَاحِبَ الْكَرْمِ مَتَى دَخَلَتْ غَنَمُ هَذَا الرَّجُلِ كَرْمَكَ قَالَ دَخَلَتْهُ لَيْلاً قَالَ قَضَيْتُ عَلَيْكَ يَا صَاحِبَ الْغَنَمِ بِأَوْلادِ غَنَمِكَ وَأَصْوَافِهَا فِي عَامِكَ هَذَا ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ دَاوُدُ فَكَيْفَ لَمْ تَقْضِ بِرِقَابِ الْغَنَمِ وَقَدْ قَوَّمَ ذَلِكَ عُلَمَاءُ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ وَكَانَ ثَمَنُ الْكَرْمِ قِيمَةَ الْغَنَمِ فَقَالَ سُلَيْمَانُ إِنَّ الْكَرْمَ لَمْ يُجْتَثَّ مِنْ أَصْلِهِ وَإِنَّمَا أُكِلَ حِمْلُهُ وَهُوَ عَائِدٌ فِي قَابِلٍ فَأَوْحَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَى دَاوُدَ إِنَّ الْقَضَاءَ فِي هَذِهِ الْقَضِيَّةِ مَا قَضَى سُلَيْمَانُ بِهِ يَا دَاوُدُ أَرَدْتَ أَمْراً وَأَرَدْنَا أَمْراً غَيْرَهُ فَدَخَلَ دَاوُدُ عَلَى امْرَأَتِهِ فَقَالَ أَرَدْنَا أَمْراً وَأَرَادَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَمْراً غَيْرَهُ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ إِلا مَا أَرَادَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَقَدْ رَضِينَا بِأَمْرِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَسَلَّمْنَا وَكَذَلِكَ الاوْصِيَاءُ (عَلَيْهم السَّلام) لَيْسَ لَهُمْ أَنْ يَتَعَدَّوْا بِهَذَا الامْرِ فَيُجَاوِزُونَ صَاحِبَهُ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ.


قَالَ الْكُلَيْنِيُّ مَعْنَى الْحَدِيثِ الاوَّلِ أَنَّ الْغَنَمَ لَوْ دَخَلَتِ الْكَرْمَ نَهَاراً لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَى صَاحِبِ الْغَنَمِ شَيْ‏ءٌ لانَّ لِصَاحِبِ الْغَنَمِ أَنْ يُسَرِّحَ غَنَمَهُ بِالنَّهَارِ تَرْعَى وَعَلَى صَاحِبِ الْكَرْمِ حِفْظُهُ وَعَلَى صَاحِبِ الْغَنَمِ أَنْ يَرْبِطَ غَنَمَهُ لَيْلاً وَلِصَاحِبِ الْكَرْمِ أَنْ يَنَامَ فِي بَيْتِهِ.


3. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn Muhammad from Bakr ibn Salih from Muhammad ibn Sulayman from ‘Aytham ibn Aslam from Mu‘awiya ibn ‘Ammar from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following. “Imamat (leadership with Divine authority) is a covenant from Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, pledged to particularly known man. The Imam does not have the right to divert it from the succeeding Imam. Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, sent inspiration to David to appoint the executor of his will from among your family. It is has occurred in My knowledge that shall not sent any prophet except that he will have the executor of his will from among the members of his family. David had several children. Among the members of the family members of David there was a son whose mother lived with David and he loved her very muCh David came to her when the Divine inspiration came to him and he said to her, Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has sent me inspirations and He wants me to appoint the executor of my will from among the members of my family. His wife asked him to appoint her son for this task. He said, “I also want what you said. “ In the foregone knowledge of Allah it was already decisively existed that executor of the will of David is Solomon. Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, sent inspiration to David commanding him not to made hasty decisions before the coming of His order. It was not long after that two man came to David to settle a dispute over the sheep and grapes among them. Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, sent inspiration to David to gather all of his sons together and let them judge the case. Whoever of your sons then would judge the case rightly he will be the executor of your will. David gathered all his sons. When the case was stated Solomon said, “O owner of grapes, when did the sheep of this man enter your vinyard?” He replied, “They entered at night.” Solomon said, “O owner of sheep, I have judged against you. You must give the young and the wool of your sheep to him this year.” David then said, “Why did you not judge giving away of the very sheep as the because the Israelite scholars have already evaluated them and the price of sheep is the value of grapes?” Solomon answered, “The vines are not consumed from their roots but only the fruit is consumed that will come back in future.” Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, sent inspiration to David that the judgment in this case is the judgment of Solomon. O David, “You wanted one thing and We had wanted other than that. David came to his wife and said, “We wanted one thing but Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, wanted a thing other than that. Nothing happened other than what Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, had wanted. We accept the command of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, and submit (to His will).” The Imam (a.s.) then said, “And so are the executors of the wills. They have no right to go beyond the limit to avail it to the other people.” Al-Kulayni has said, “The meaning of the first hadith is that had the sheep have entered the vineyard during the day the owner of the sheep did not have to pay anything. The sheep owner must let them graze during the day and vineyard owner must guard his vineyard. The owner of sheep must guard his sheep at night and the owner of vineyard can rest at home.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/184)



4ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنِ ابْنِ بُكَيْرٍ وَجَمِيلٍ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ مُصْعَبٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ أَ تَرَوْنَ أَنَّ الْمُوصِيَ مِنَّا يُوصِي إِلَى مَنْ يُرِيدُ لا وَالله وَلَكِنَّهُ عَهْدٌ مِنْ رَسُولِ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِلَى رَجُلٍ فَرَجُلٍ حَتَّى انْتَهَى إِلَى نَفْسِهِ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ibn Bukayr and Jamil from ‘Amr ibn Mu‘ab who has said that I heard abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) say the following. “Do you think that a testator of us chooses whoever he wants as the executor of his will? No, I swear by Allah, it is not so. It is a covenant from the Messenger of Allah to a man and then to next man. Until the Imam (abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) ended up to his self.” The Imam (a.s.) six times said, “To the next man.” 1. The case with David and Solomon (a.s.) is referred to in the Holy Quran (21:78 – 79) .


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/183)