Al-Kāfi - Volume 1 > Allah’s Authorities and Means of Justification of Accountability in People
Hadith #1

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ أَبِي شُعَيْبٍ الْمَحَامِلِيِّ عَنْ دُرُسْتَ بْنِ أَبِي مَنْصُورٍ عَنْ بُرَيْدِ بْنِ مُعَاوِيَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لَيْسَ لله عَلَى خَلْقِهِ أَنْ يَعْرِفُوا وَلِلْخَلْقِ عَلَى الله أَنْ يُعَرِّفَهُمْ وَلله عَلَى الْخَلْقِ إِذَا عَرَّفَهُمْ أَنْ يَقْبَلُوا.

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from abu Shu’ayb al-Mahamili from Durust ibn abu Mansur from Burayd ibn Mu‘awiya from abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who said the following: “People are not accountable before Allah to know. It is up to Allah to make them know. Once Allah makes them know then people are responsible for accepting (their duties).”



Hadith #2

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحَجَّالِ عَنْ ثَعْلَبَةَ بْنِ مَيْمُونٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الاعْلَى بْنِ أَعْيَنَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مَنْ لَمْ يَعْرِفْ شَيْئاً هَلْ عَلَيْهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ قَالَ لا.

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Hajjal from Tha‘laba ibn Maymun from ‘Abd al-A‘la ibn ’A‘yan who said the following: “Once I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, ‘If a person does not know, will he be held responsible?’ He said, ‘No, he will not be held responsible.’”



Hadith #3

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ فَرْقَدٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ زَكَرِيَّا بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ مَا حَجَبَ الله عَنِ الْعِبَادِ فَهُوَ مَوْضُوعٌ عَنْهُمْ.

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ibn Faddal from Dawud ibn Farqad from abu al-Hassan Zakariyya from abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who said the following: “Whatever Allah has kept hidden from people they will not be held responsible for it.”



Hadith #4

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبَانٍ الاحْمَرِ عَنْ حَمْزَةَ بْنِ الطَّيَّارِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ لِي اكْتُبْ فَأَمْلَى عَلَيَّ إِنَّ مِنْ قَوْلِنَا إِنَّ الله يَحْتَجُّ عَلَى الْعِبَادِ بِمَا آتَاهُمْ وَعَرَّفَهُمْ ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَ إِلَيْهِمْ رَسُولاً وَأَنْزَلَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْكِتَابَ فَأَمَرَ فِيهِ وَنَهَى أَمَرَ فِيهِ بِالصَّلاةِ وَالصِّيَامِ فَنَامَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) عَنِ الصَّلاةِ فَقَالَ أَنَا أُنِيمُكَ وَأَنَا أُوقِظُكَ فَإِذَا قُمْتَ فَصَلِّ لِيَعْلَمُوا إِذَا أَصَابَهُمْ ذَلِكَ كَيْفَ يَصْنَعُونَ لَيْسَ كَمَا يَقُولُونَ إِذَا نَامَ عَنْهَا هَلَكَ وَكَذَلِكَ الصِّيَامُ أَنَا أُمْرِضُكَ وَأَنَا أُصِحُّكَ فَإِذَا شَفَيْتُكَ فَاقْضِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَكَذَلِكَ إِذَا نَظَرْتَ فِي جَمِيعِ الاشْيَاءِ لَمْ تَجِدْ أَحَداً فِي ضِيقٍ وَلَمْ تَجِدْ أَحَداً إِلا وَلله عَلَيْهِ الْحُجَّةُ وَلله فِيهِ الْمَشِيئَةُ وَلا أَقُولُ إِنَّهُمْ مَا شَاءُوا صَنَعُوا ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ الله يَهْدِي وَيُضِلُّ وَقَالَ وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلا بِدُونِ سَعَتِهِمْ وَكُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ أُمِرَ النَّاسُ بِهِ فَهُمْ يَسَعُونَ لَهُ وَكُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ لا يَسَعُونَ لَهُ فَهُوَ مَوْضُوعٌ عَنْهُمْ وَلَكِنَّ النَّاسَ لا خَيْرَ فِيهِمْ ثُمَّ تَلا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) لَيْسَ عَلَى الضُّعَفاءِ وَلا عَلَى الْمَرْضى‏ وَلا عَلَى الَّذِينَ لا يَجِدُونَ ما يُنْفِقُونَ حَرَجٌ فَوُضِعَ عَنْهُمْ ما عَلَى الْمُحْسِنِينَ مِنْ سَبِيلٍ وَالله غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ وَلا عَلَى الَّذِينَ إِذا ما أَتَوْكَ لِتَحْمِلَهُمْ قَالَ فَوُضِعَ عَنْهُمْ لانَّهُمْ لا يَجِدُونَ.

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Aban al-Ahmar from Hamza ibn al-Tayyar who said the following: “Once Imam abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, said to me, ‘Write down.’ He dictated to me the following. ‘It is of our Hadith that Allah will, justifiably, hold people accountable for what He has given and made known to them. Allah then sent His messenger to them and sent down books upon them in which He has commanded and prohibited them. He has commanded them to perform prayers and fast. The messenger of Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, remained sleeping until the time for prayer expired and Allah said, ‘I make you sleep and wake you up. When you wake up then perform the prayer so that they can learn if such thing happened to them what they should do.’ “It is not the way that they say, ‘If one remains asleep (at the time of prayer) one is destroyed.’ In the same way is fasting. ‘I (Allah) cause you to become ill and when I give you good health then you will make up for the fast that you missed during your illness.’ Abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, then said, ‘So also is, if you look at all things you will find that Allah has caused no constrictions to anyone. You will not find anyone against whom Allah may not have enough justification to hold him accountable with His wish therein. I do not say that they can do whatever they wish. “The Imam then said, ‘Allah guides and misleads.’ He further said, ‘People are not ordered to do what they are not capable of. For everything that people are ordered to do they have the capability for it and anything of which they are not capable is removed and lifted up from them but there is not much good in people.’ He (the Imam) then recited from the Holy Quran: ‘People who are weak or sick and those who do not have the means to take part in the fighting are exempt from this duty . . .’ (conditions of people exempt are mentioned) ‘Righteous people shall not be blamed. Allah is All-forgiving and All-merciful.’ (9:91) So also relieved of the duty are ‘Those who come to you (Muhammad), asking to be taken to the battle . . .’ (9:92) they do not have the means.’”