3. Chapter on (the Issue) that only He is proof of His Own Existence

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حُمْرَانَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ السَّكَنِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) اعْرِفُوا الله بِالله وَالرَّسُولَ بِالرِّسَالَةِ وَأُولِي الامْرِ بِالامْرِ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَالْعَدْلِ وَالاحْسَانِ.


وَمَعْنَى قَوْلِهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) اعْرِفُوا الله بِالله يَعْنِي أَنَّ الله خَلَقَ الاشْخَاصَ وَالانْوَارَ وَالْجَوَاهِرَ وَالاعْيَانَ فَالاعْيَانُ الابْدَانُ وَالْجَوَاهِرُ الارْوَاحُ وَهُوَ جَلَّ وَعَزَّ لا يُشْبِهُ جِسْماً وَلا رُوحاً وَلَيْسَ لاحَدٍ فِي خَلْقِ الرُّوحِ الْحَسَّاسِ الدَّرَّاكِ أَمْرٌ وَلا سَبَبٌ هُوَ الْمُتَفَرِّدُ بِخَلْقِ الارْوَاحِ وَالاجْسَامِ فَإِذَا نَفَى عَنْهُ الشَّبَهَيْنِ شَبَهَ الابْدَانِ وَشَبَهَ الارْوَاحِ فَقَدْ عَرَفَ الله بِالله وَإِذَا شَبَّهَهُ بِالرُّوحِ أَوِ الْبَدَنِ أَوِ النُّورِ فَلَمْ يَعْرِفِ الله بِالله.


1. Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from the people he mentioned from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Muhammad ibn Humran from al- Fadl ibn al-Sakan from Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has narrated the following. “Imam Ali (a.s.) has said, ‘Recognize Allah by Allah’s Own-Self, recognize the Messenger through his message and the people with Divine authority through their commanding others to do what is obligatory, the practice of justice and kindness.’” Al-Kulayni had made the following comment on the above passage. “Acknowledge the existence of Allah by His own self” means that Allah has created the individuals, the light, the substance and the objects. The objects are the bodies, the substance stand for the spirits and He is not similar to the bodies or spirit in any of the creatures. No one has any part or effect in the creation of the spirits that comprehend and feel. He is the only one who has created the spirits and the bodies. When similarity to both kinds of creatures; similarity to the bodies and spirits is negated from Him, then one has acknowledge the existence of Allah by Allah’s own self. If one considers Him similar to the spirits, lights or bodies he has not acknowledged His existence by His own self.


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (294/ 1)



2ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ عُقْبَةَ بْنِ قَيْسِ بْنِ سِمْعَانَ بْنِ أَبِي رُبَيْحَةَ مَوْلَى رَسُولِ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَالَ سُئِلَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِمَ عَرَفْتَ رَبَّكَ قَالَ بِمَا عَرَّفَنِي نَفْسَهُ قِيلَ وَكَيْفَ عَرَّفَكَ نَفْسَهُ قَالَ لا يُشْبِهُهُ صُورَةٌ وَلا يُحَسُّ بِالْحَوَاسِّ وَلا يُقَاسُ بِالنَّاسِ قَرِيبٌ فِي بُعْدِهِ بَعِيدٌ فِي قُرْبِهِ فَوْقَ كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ وَلا يُقَالُ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَوْقَهُ أَمَامَ كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ وَلا يُقَالُ لَهُ أَمَامٌ دَاخِلٌ فِي الاشْيَاءِ لا كَشَيْ‏ءٍ دَاخِلٍ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ وَخَارِجٌ مِنَ الاشْيَاءِ لا كَشَيْ‏ءٍ خَارِجٍ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ سُبْحَانَ مَنْ هُوَ هَكَذَا وَلا هَكَذَا غَيْرُهُ وَلِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ مُبْتَدَأٌ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from some of our people from Ali ibn Ali ibn ‘Uqbaa ibn Qays ibn Sam‘an ibn abu Rabi‘ah Mawla of the Messenger of Allah who has said the following. “A certain person asked Imam Ali (a.s.) saying, ‘By what means do you acknowledge the existence of your Lord?’” The Imam (a.s.) replied, “I acknowledge His existence by what He has made me to acknowledge His Own-Self.” He was asked, “How that has happened?” The Imam (a.s.) then replied, “He is not similar to any form and is not felt and comprehended through any of the senses and can not be analogized with the people. He is near in that He is far and He is far in that He is near. He is above every thing but one can not say that certain things are above Him. He is before every thing but one can not say that something is before Him. He is inside all things but not the way things are inside other things. He is outside every thing but not the way things are outside other things. Glory belongs to the One Who is as such and nothing else other than Him is as such and for every thing there is a beginner.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/299)



3ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لابِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنِّي نَاظَرْتُ قَوْماً فَقُلْتُ لَهُمْ إِنَّ الله جَلَّ جَلالُهُ أَجَلُّ وَأَعَزُّ وَأَكْرَمُ مِنْ أَنْ يُعْرَفَ بِخَلْقِهِ بَلِ الْعِبَادُ يُعْرَفُونَ بِالله فَقَالَ رَحِمَكَ الله.


3. Muhammad ibn Isma‘il has narrated the following from al-Fadl ibn shadhan from Safwan ibn Yahya from Mansur ibn Hazim who has said that I spoke to Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) saying, “I debated certain people and said to them, ‘Allah, Glory be to Him, is far Glorious, Majestic and Honorable than being defined by means of His creatures. In fact, the existence of the creatures is proved through the existence of Allah.’” The Imam (a.s.) said, “May Allah bestow up on you blessings.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/300)