14. Chapter On Will Power (IRADAH) it is of the Attributes of Action (SIFAT al-FI‘L) and the Rest of the Attributes of Action

Back to book

1ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى الْعَطَّارُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى الاشْعَرِيِّ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ الاهْوَازِيِّ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَمْ يَزَلِ الله مُرِيداً قَالَ إِنَّ الْمُرِيدَ لا يَكُونُ إِلا لِمُرَادٍ مَعَهُ لَمْ يَزَلِ الله عَالِماً قَادِراً ثُمَّ أَرَادَ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya al-‘Attar has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa al-Ash‘ari from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id al-Ahwazi from an-Nadr ibn Suwayd from ‘Asim ibn Hamiyd who has said the following. “I asked abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.), ‘Is Allah’s will eternal?’” He replied, Will is always with what is willed. Allah is eternally All-knowing and All-powerful and then He wills.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/ 2)



2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ بَكْرِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ الْجَهْمِ عَنْ بُكَيْرِ بْنِ أَعْيَنَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لابِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عِلْمُ الله وَمَشِيئَتُهُ هُمَا مُخْتَلِفَانِ أَوْ مُتَّفِقَانِ فَقَالَ الْعِلْمُ لَيْسَ هُوَ الْمَشِيئَةَ أَ لا تَرَى أَنَّكَ تَقُولُ سَأَفْعَلُ كَذَا إِنْ شَاءَ الله وَلا تَقُولُ سَأَفْعَلُ كَذَا إِنْ عَلِمَ الله فَقَوْلُكَ إِنْ شَاءَ الله دَلِيلٌ عَلَى أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَشَأْ فَإِذَا شَاءَ كَانَ الَّذِي شَاءَ كَمَا شَاءَ وَعِلْمُ الله السَّابِقُ لِلْمَشِيئَةِ.


2. Muhammad ibn abu ‘Abdallah has narrated from Muhammad ibn Isma‘il from al-Husayn ibn al-Hassan from Bakr ibn Salih from Ali ibn Asbat from al-Hassan ibn al-Jahm from Bukayr ibn A‘yan who has said the following. “I asked abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.), ‘Are the knowledge and the will of Allah different or the same?’” He replied, “His knowledge is not the same as His will. Consider when you say, ‘If Allah wills, I will do this,’ and you do not say, “If Allah knows I will do this.” Your own words, if Allah wills are proof that Allah has not yet willed it. If He would will what He would do, it happens exactly as He wills. His knowledge is before His will.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/16)



3ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى قَالَ قُلْتُ لابِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الارَادَةِ مِنَ الله وَمِنَ الْخَلْقِ قَالَ فَقَالَ الارَادَةُ مِنَ الْخَلْقِ الضَّمِيرُ وَمَا يَبْدُو لَهُمْ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْفِعْلِ وَأَمَّا مِنَ الله تَعَالَى فَإِرَادَتُهُ إِحْدَاثُهُ لا غَيْرُ ذَلِكَ لانَّهُ لا يُرَوِّي وَلا يَهُمُّ وَلا يَتَفَكَّرُ وَهَذِهِ الصِّفَاتُ مَنْفِيَّةٌ عَنْهُ وَهِيَ صِفَاتُ الْخَلْقِ فَإِرَادَةُ الله الْفِعْلُ لا غَيْرُ ذَلِكَ يَقُولُ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ بِلا لَفْظٍ وَلا نُطْقٍ بِلِسَانٍ وَلا هِمَّةٍ وَلا تَفَكُّرٍ وَلا كَيْفَ لِذَلِكَ كَمَا أَنَّهُ لا كَيْفَ لَهُ.


3. Ahmad ibn Idris has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya who has said the following. “I asked abu al-Hassan (a.s.), ‘Enlighten me about the will of Allah and the will of His creatures.’” He said, “The will of His creatures comes from what goes in their minds and leads to action. Will of Allah, the Most High, is His inventing and nothing else because Allah does not need to reflect, deliberate or think. Such qualities do not exist with Him. They are the attributes of His creation. Allah’s will is His acts and nothing else. He says to it: Be, and it comes into existence, without any words or utterance of the tongue, any inclination and reflection. His will has no conditions just as His self has no conditions.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/16)



4ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ خَلَقَ الله الْمَشِيئَةَ بِنَفْسِهَا ثُمَّ خَلَقَ الاشْيَاءَ بِالْمَشِيئَةِ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar ibn ’Udhaynah from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following. “Allah created His Will by Will itself. Then, He created all things by His Will.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن ويحتمل وجوها من التأوي ل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (18/ 2)



5ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْبَرْقِيِّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْمَشْرِقِيِّ حَمْزَةَ بْنِ الْمُرْتَفِعِ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا قَالَ كُنْتُ فِي مَجْلِسِ ابي جعفر (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِذْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ عَمْرُو بْنُ عُبَيْدٍ فَقَالَ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ قَوْلُ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى وَمَنْ يَحْلِلْ عَلَيْهِ غَضَبِي فَقَدْ هَوى‏ مَا ذَلِكَ الْغَضَبُ فَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) هُوَ الْعِقَابُ يَا عَمْرُو إِنَّهُ مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ الله قَدْ زَالَ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ إِلَى شَيْ‏ءٍ فَقَدْ وَصَفَهُ صِفَةَ مَخْلُوقٍ وَإِنَّ الله تَعَالَى لا يَسْتَفِزُّهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَيُغَيِّرَهُ.


5. A group of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Mashriqi Hamzah ibn al-Murtafi‘ from some of our people who has said the following. “I was in the presence of abu Ja‘far (a.s.) when ‘Amr ibn ‘Ubayd said, ‘May Allah take my soul in your service, what is the meaning of Allah’s words, “Whoever becomes subject to my anger he is destroyed.” 20:84 What is this anger?’ Abu Ja‘far (a.s.) replied, “O ‘Amr, His anger is His punishment. O ‘Amr, whoever thinks Allah changes from one state to another, has ascribed to Allah the attributes of His creatures. Nothing can provoke Allah, the Sublime, to change Him.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/20)



6ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ فِي حَدِيثِ الزِّنْدِيقِ الَّذِي سَأَلَ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَكَانَ مِنْ سُؤَالِهِ أَنْ قَالَ لَهُ فَلَهُ رِضًا وَسَخَطٌ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) نَعَمْ وَلَكِنْ لَيْسَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى مَا يُوجَدُ مِنَ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الرِّضَا حَالٌ تَدْخُلُ عَلَيْهِ فَتَنْقُلُهُ مِنْ حَالٍ إِلَى حَالٍ لانَّ الْمَخْلُوقَ أَجْوَفُ مُعْتَمِلٌ مُرَكَّبٌ لِلاشْيَاءِ فِيهِ مَدْخَلٌ وَخَالِقُنَا لا مَدْخَلَ لِلاشْيَاءِ فِيهِ لانَّهُ وَاحِدٌ وَاحِدِيُّ الذَّاتِ وَاحِدِيُّ الْمَعْنَى فَرِضَاهُ ثَوَابُهُ وَسَخَطُهُ عِقَابُهُ مِنْ غَيْرِ شَيْ‏ءٍ يَتَدَاخَلُهُ فَيُهَيِّجُهُ وَيَنْقُلُهُ مِنْ حَالٍ إِلَى حَالٍ لانَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ صِفَةِ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ الْعَاجِزِينَ الْمُحْتَاجِينَ.


6. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-‘Abbass ibn ‘Amr from Hisham ibn al-Hakam who has narrated the following in the debate with the atheist who asked abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) (See Hadith Nos.225 - 6 and 297 -2). “Does Allah become pleased and displeased?” Abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) replied, “Yes, but not like that which is found in His creatures. In His creatures the pleasure is a state (hal), which enters into him and changes him from one state to another. The creatures are hollow, active and compound with entrance in them. Nothing can enter into our Creator. Because He is One, a single self, a single meaning. His pleasure is His reward and His anger is His punishment without anything entering in Him to motivate and change Him from one state to another because these are of the attributes of His creatures who are weak and needy.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/21)



7ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ الْمَشِيئَةُ مُحْدَثَةٌ.


جُمْلَةُ الْقَوْلِ فِي صِفَاتِ الذَّاتِ وَصِفَاتِ الْفِعْلِ.


إِنَّ كُلَّ شَيْئَيْنِ وَصَفْتَ الله بِهِمَا وَكَانَا جَمِيعاً فِي الْوُجُودِ فَذَلِكَ صِفَةُ فِعْلٍ وَتَفْسِيرُ هَذِهِ الْجُمْلَةِ أَنَّكَ تُثْبِتُ فِي الْوُجُودِ مَا يُرِيدُ وَمَا لا يُرِيدُ وَمَا يَرْضَاهُ وَمَا يُسْخِطُهُ وَمَا يُحِبُّ وَمَا يُبْغِضُ فَلَوْ كَانَتِ الارَادَةُ مِنْ صِفَاتِ الذَّاتِ مِثْلِ الْعِلْمِ وَالْقُدْرَةِ كَانَ مَا لا يُرِيدُ نَاقِضاً لِتِلْكَ الصِّفَةِ وَلَوْ كَانَ مَا يُحِبُّ مِنْ صِفَاتِ الذَّاتِ كَانَ مَا يُبْغِضُ نَاقِضاً لِتِلْكَ الصِّفَةِ أَ لا تَرَى أَنَّا لا نَجِدُ فِي الْوُجُودِ مَا لا يَعْلَمُ وَمَا لا يَقْدِرُ عَلَيْهِ وَكَذَلِكَ صِفَاتُ ذَاتِهِ الازَلِيِّ لَسْنَا نَصِفُهُ بِقُدْرَةٍ وَعَجْزٍ وَعِلْمٍ وَجَهْلٍ وَسَفَهٍ وَحِكْمَةٍ وَخَطَإٍ وَعِزٍّ وَذِلَّةٍ وَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يُقَالَ يُحِبُّ مَنْ أَطَاعَهُ وَيُبْغِضُ مَنْ عَصَاهُ وَيُوَالِي مَنْ أَطَاعَهُ وَيُعَادِي مَنْ عَصَاهُ وَإِنَّهُ يَرْضَى وَيَسْخَطُ وَيُقَالُ فِي الدُّعَاءِ اللهمَّ ارْضَ عَنِّي وَلا تَسْخَطْ عَلَيَّ وَتَوَلَّنِي وَلا تُعَادِنِي وَلا يَجُوزُ أَنْ يُقَالَ يَقْدِرُ أَنْ يَعْلَمَ وَلا يَقْدِرُ أَنْ لا يَعْلَمَ وَيَقْدِرُ أَنْ يَمْلِكَ وَلا يَقْدِرُ أَنْ لا يَمْلِكَ وَيَقْدِرُ أَنْ يَكُونَ عَزِيزاً حَكِيماً وَلا يَقْدِرُ أَنْ لا يَكُونَ عَزِيزاً حَكِيماً وَيَقْدِرُ أَنْ يَكُونَ جَوَاداً وَلا يَقْدِرُ أَنْ لا يَكُونَ جَوَاداً وَيَقْدِرُ أَنْ يَكُونَ غَفُوراً وَلا يَقْدِرُ أَنْ لا يَكُونَ غَفُوراً وَلا يَجُوزُ أَيْضاً أَنْ يُقَالَ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَكُونَ رَبّاً وَقَدِيماً وَعَزِيزاً وَحَكِيماً وَمَالِكاً وَعَالِماً وَقَادِراً لانَّ هَذِهِ مِنْ صِفَاتِ الذَّاتِ وَالارَادَةُ مِنْ صِفَاتِ الْفِعْلِ أَ لا تَرَى أَنَّهُ يُقَالُ أَرَادَ هَذَا وَلَمْ يُرِدْ هَذَا وَصِفَاتُ الذَّاتِ تَنْفِي عَنْهُ بِكُلِّ صِفَةٍ مِنْهَا ضِدَّهَا يُقَالُ حَيٌّ وَعَالِمٌ وَسَمِيعٌ وَبَصِيرٌ وَعَزِيزٌ وَحَكِيمٌ غَنِيٌّ مَلِكٌ حَلِيمٌ عَدْلٌ كَرِيمٌ فَالْعِلْمُ ضِدُّهُ الْجَهْلُ وَالْقُدْرَةُ ضِدُّهَا الْعَجْزُ وَالْحَيَاةُ ضِدُّهَا الْمَوْتُ وَالْعِزَّةُ ضِدُّهَا الذِّلَّةُ وَالْحِكْمَةُ ضِدُّهَا الْخَطَأُ وَضِدُّ الْحِلْمِ الْعَجَلَةُ وَالْجَهْلُ وَضِدُّ الْعَدْلِ الْجَوْرُ وَالظُّلْمُ.


7. A group of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ibn ’Udhaynah from Muhammad ibn Muslim from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said, “The will is created.” Summery Statements on the Attributes of His self Sifat al-Dhat and the Attributes of His Actions Sifat al-Fi‘1 For every two attributes which you attribute to Allah (e.g. The Creator, The Sustainer), of which each has its own separate being, (i.e. The Creator achieves its being, as an attribute of Allah’ through something which Allah creates, and The Sustainer achieves its being, as an attribute of Allah, through a created being which He sustains), these attributes are attributes of (His) action. (Because if two attributes are separate in being, obviously each of them differs in their being with the thing with which they are attributed, and therefore both the attribute and the attributed have their own being. Therefore, in order to distinguish an attribute of action from an attribute of essence, it is always necessary to compare that attribute with another one. If we perceives these two to be independent of each other in being, then both of them are attributes of action). The explanation (and proof) of this sentence is that you prove (establish), in respect of His Being, what He intends to do and what He does not intend, what pleases Him and what displeases Him, what He likes and what He dislikes. If the intention had been the attribute of His essence like the attribute of knowledge and power, His not intending (for something) would have been its contradiction. Similarly, if His liking for something had been the attribute of His essence, His dislike (of something) would have been its contradiction. Do you not see, we do not find in His Being anything which He does not know and anything over which He has no power? Such are the attributes of His essence (Self), which are everlasting. We can never attribute to Allah power and (its opposite) weakness. (Similarly, we can neither attribute to Him knowledge and [its opposite] ignorance and stupidity, nor can we attribute to Him wisdom and 1 its opposite] error. Nor can we attribute to Him honor and [its opposite] disgrace). It is permissible to say, “He (Allah) loves him who obeys Him and hates him who disobeys Him. He favors him who obeys Him and is hostile to him who disobeys Him. And verily, He is pleased and He is also displeased. It is also permissible to say in the invocations: ‘O my Allah, be pleased with me and do not be angry at me. Favor me and do not be hostile to me.’” But it is not permissible to say, “Allah has power to know and has no power not to know. He has power to possess and has no power not to possess. He has power to be powerful and wise, and has no power to be otherwise, i.e. without power and wisdom. He has power to be generous and has no power to be not generous. He has power to be forgiving and has no power to be not forgiving.” It is also not permissible to say, “Allah intended to be the Nourishing, the Everlasting, the Mighty, the Wise, the Possessor, the all-knowing, the all-Powerful.” Since these are the attributes of His essence while intention is among His attributes of action. “Do you not see that it is said; “Allah intended this and did not intend that.” Every Attribute of His essence negates its opposite in respect of Him. He is called: “The Living, the All-knowing, the All-hearing, the All-seeing, the All-mighty, the All-wise, the Rich, the King, the Clement, the Just and the Generous.” The opposite of knowledge is ignorance. The opposite of power is inability. The opposite of life is death. The opposite of honor is humiliation. The opposite of wisdom is error. The opposite of clemency is haste and ignorance. The opposite of justice is oppression and tyranny. (So, by proving any of His essential attributes its opposite is negated.)


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/22)