11. Prohibition on Speaking without Knowledge.

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1ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ وَعَبْدِ الله ابْنَيْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ سَيْفِ بْنِ عَمِيرَةَ عَنْ مُفَضَّلِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ قَالَ قَالَ لِي أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنْهَاكَ عَنْ خَصْلَتَيْنِ فِيهِمَا هَلاكُ الرِّجَالِ أَنْهَاكَ أَنْ تَدِينَ الله بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتُفْتِيَ النَّاسَ بِمَا لا تَعْلَمُ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad and ‘Abdallah (both) sons of Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Sayf ibn ‘Umayra from Mufaddal ibn Yazid who has said the following. “(Imam) abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.)said, ‘I would like to warn you about two forms of behavior that lead a man to destruction. I prohibit you from dealing with Allah on the basis of falsehood and from giving fatwa to people without knowledge.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (136/ 1)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ قَالَ قَالَ لِي أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِيَّاكَ وَخَصْلَتَيْنِ فَفِيهِمَا هَلَكَ مَنْ هَلَكَ إِيَّاكَ أَنْ تُفْتِيَ النَّاسَ بِرَأْيِكَ أَوْ تَدِينَ بِمَا لا تَعْلَمُ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa ibn ‘Ubayd from Yunus ibn ’Abd al-Rahman from ’Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj who has said the following. “Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) has said, ‘Beware of two forms of behavior. It is such behaviors that have lead many people to their destruction. Beware of giving fatwa to people on the basis of your own opinion and to follow a religion without knowledge.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/136)



3ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنْ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ الْحَذَّاءِ عَنْ ابي جعفر (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ مَنْ أَفْتَى النَّاسَ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَلا هُدًى لَعَنَتْهُ مَلائِكَةُ الرَّحْمَةِ وَمَلائِكَةُ الْعَذَابِ وَلَحِقَهُ وِزْرُ مَنْ عَمِلَ بِفُتْيَاهُ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Ali ibn al-Ri’ab from abu ‘Ubayda al-Hadhdha’ from abu Ja’far (a.s.) who has said the following. “The angels of mercy and the angels of wickedness condemn those who give to people fatwas without knowledge and guidance. Such people will be held responsible for the sins of all those who have followed such fatwas.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/137)



4ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ أَبَانٍ الاحْمَرِ عَنْ زِيَادِ بْنِ أَبِي رَجَاءٍ عَنْ ابي جعفر (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ مَا عَلِمْتُمْ فَقُولُوا وَمَا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا فَقُولُوا الله أَعْلَمُ إِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَنْتَزِعُ الايَةَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ يَخِرُّ فِيهَا أَبْعَدَ مَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالارْضِ.


4. A number of our people has narrated has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Washshi’ from Aban al-Ahmar from Ziyad ibn abu Raja’ from abu Ja’far (a.s.) who has said the following. “What you know you may speak it up but what you do not know say, ‘Allah knows best’. A man refers to a verse in the holy Quran and gives it a meaning that is farther from the truth than the heavens are from earth.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/137)



5ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ رِبْعِيِّ بْنِ عَبْدِ الله عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لِلْعَالِمِ إِذَا سُئِلَ عَنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ وَهُوَ لا يَعْلَمُهُ أَنْ يَقُولَ الله أَعْلَمُ وَلَيْسَ لِغَيْرِ الْعَالِمِ أَنْ يَقُولَ ذَلِكَ.


5. Muhammad ibn ‘Isma’il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Ri’ab‘i ibn ‘Abdallah from Muhammad ibn Muslim from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following. “It is very proper for a scholar to say, ‘Allah knows best’ if he does not know. This is not for a none scholar.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (138/ 1)



6ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الله عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِذَا سُئِلَ الرَّجُلُ مِنْكُمْ عَمَّا لا يَعْلَمُ فَلْيَقُلْ لا أَدْرِي وَلا يَقُلْ الله أَعْلَمُ فَيُوقِعَ فِي قَلْبِ صَاحِبِهِ شَكّاً وَإِذَا قَالَ الْمَسْئُولُ لا أَدْرِي فَلا يَتَّهِمُهُ السَّائِلُ.


6. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Hariz ibn ‘Abdallah from Muhammad ibn Muslim from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following. “If one of you would be asked of what he does not know he must say, ‘I have no knowledge and he must not say, “Allah knows best” because it may create doubts in the hearts of his audience. If the person questioned would say, “I do not know his audience will not accuse him of anything.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/138)



7ـ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ غَيْرِ وَاحِدٍ عَنْ أَبَانٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ بْنِ أَعْيَنَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مَا حَقُّ الله عَلَى الْعِبَادِ قَالَ أَنْ يَقُولُوا مَا يَعْلَمُونَ وَيَقِفُوا عِنْدَ مَا لا يَعْلَمُونَ.


7. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn Asbat from Ja’far ibn Sama‘a from several persons, from aban, from Zurara ibn A‘yan who has said the following. “I asked Imam abu Ja‘far (a.s.) this, ‘What are the rights of Allah on people?’” The Imam (a.s.) replied, “They must say what they know and abstain from saying anything that they have no knowledge of.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (138/ 1)



8ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ أَبِي يَعْقُوبَ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الله عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ الله خَصَّ عِبَادَهُ بِ‏آيَتَيْنِ مِنْ كِتَابِهِ أَنْ لا يَقُولُوا حَتَّى يَعْلَمُوا وَلا يَرُدُّوا مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمُوا وَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَ لَمْ يُؤْخَذْ عَلَيْهِمْ مِيثاقُ الْكِتابِ أَنْ لا يَقُولُوا عَلَى الله إِلا الْحَقَّ وَقَالَ بَلْ كَذَّبُوا بِما لَمْ يُحِيطُوا بِعِلْمِهِ وَلَمَّا يَأْتِهِمْ تَأْوِيلُهُ.


Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Yunus (ibn ’Abd al-Rahman) from abu Ya’qub Ishaq ibn ‘Abdallah from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following. “Allah has addressed His servants in two verses of the holy Quran very particularly: Did they not make a covenant (with God) in the Book not to speak any thing other than the Truth about God and to study its contents well? They call a lie something that is beyond the limit of their knowledge and whose interpretation has not yet been revealed . .” (10:39)


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن على الظاهر - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/139)



9ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ فَرْقَدٍ عَمَّنْ حَدَّثَهُ عَنِ ابْنِ شُبْرُمَةَ قَالَ مَا ذَكَرْتُ حَدِيثاً سَمِعْتُهُ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ (عَلَيْهما السَّلام) إِلا كَادَ أَنْ يَتَصَدَّعَ قَلْبِي قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي عَنْ جَدِّي عَنْ رَسُولِ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَالَ ابْنُ شُبْرُمَةَ وَأُقْسِمُ بِالله مَا كَذَبَ أَبُوهُ عَلَى جَدِّهِ وَلا جَدُّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) مَنْ عَمِلَ بِالْمَقَايِيسِ فَقَدْ هَلَكَ وَأَهْلَكَ وَمَنْ أَفْتَى النَّاسَ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَهُوَ لا يَعْلَمُ النَّاسِخَ مِنَ الْمَنْسُوخِ وَالْمُحْكَمَ مِنَ الْمُتَشَابِهِ فَقَدْ هَلَكَ وَأَهْلَكَ.


9. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from Dawad ibn Farqad from one he narrated from ibn Shubruma (a judge in al-Kufa during the rule of al-Mansur) who has said the following. “I never heard any thing like a statement I heard from Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) and it is almost as he said, ‘Pierced my heart.’” The Imam (a.s.) said, “My father narrated from my great-great-great-great grandfather, the holy Prophet (s.a.) who said, ‘Those who act on the basis of analogy will face their destruction and lead others to their destruction. Those who give fatwas without the knowledge of the abrogating and the abrogated, the clear text and that which requires interpretation, they will face destruction and lead others to their destruction.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/140)