12. The Oath that Obligates one to Pay Expiation

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1- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنِ ابْنِ بُكَيْرٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ كُلُّ يَمِينٍ حَلَفْتَ عَلَيْهَا لَكَ فِيهَا مَنْفَعَةٌ فِي أَمْرِ دِينٍ أَوْ دُنْيَا فَلا شَيْ‏ءَ عَلَيْكَ فِيهَا وَإِنَّمَا تَقَعُ عَلَيْكَ الْكَفَّارَةُ فِيمَا حَلَفْتَ عَلَيْهِ فِيمَا للهِ مَعْصِيَةٌ أَنْ لا تَفْعَلَهُ ثُمَّ تَفْعَلُهُ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal from ibn Bukayr from Zurarah who has narrated the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Any oath that you take and it is for your benefits in the worldly or matters of hereafter, then there is nothing on you. Expiation is payable only when you take an oath in disobedience to Allah if you did not do it then you do it.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/324)



2- عَنْهُ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ لَيْسَ كُلُّ يَمِينٍ فِيهَا كَفَّارَةٌ أَمَّا مَا كَانَ مِنْهَا مِمَّا أَوْجَبَ اللهُ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ تَفْعَلَهُ فَحَلَفْتَ أَنْ لا تَفْعَلَهُ فَفَعَلْتَ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ فِيهَا الْكَفَّارَةُ وَأَمَّا مَا لَمْ يَكُنْ مِمَّا أَوْجَبَ اللهُ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ تَفْعَلَهُ فَحَلَفْتَ أَنْ لا تَفْعَلَهُ فَفَعَلْتَهُ فَإِنَّ عَلَيْكَ فِيهِ الْكَفَّارَةَ.


2. It is narrated from the narrator of the previous Hadith from ibn Mahbub from ‘ Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj who has narrated the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘Every kind of oath does not make one liable to expiation. If the matter is what Allah has made obligatory on you to do and you take an oath not to do it but you do it there is no expiation on you. If it is not of the matters that Allah has made obligatory on you to do and you take an oath not to do it but you do it, then there is expiation on you.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/324)



3- عَنْهُ عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ الْفُضَيْلِ عَنْ حَمْزَةَ بْنِ حُمْرَانَ عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ فَرْقَدٍ عَنْ حُمْرَانَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي جَعْفَرٍ وَأَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) الْيَمِينُ الَّتِي تَلْزَمُنِي فِيهَا الْكَفَّارَةُ فَقَالا مَا حَلَفْتَ عَلَيْهِ مِمَّا للهِ فِيهِ طَاعَةٌ أَنْ تَفْعَلَهُ فَلَمْ تَفْعَلْهُ فَعَلَيْكَ فِيهِ الْكَفَّارَةُ وَمَا حَلَفْتَ عَلَيْهِ مِمَّا للهِ فِيهِ الْمَعْصِيَةُ فَكَفَّارَتُهُ تَرْكُهُ وَمَا لَمْ يَكُنْ فِيهِ مَعْصِيَةٌ وَلا طَاعَةٌ فَلَيْسَ هُوَ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ.


3. It is narrated from the narrator of the previous Hadith from Sa‘d ibn Sa‘d from Muhammad ibn al-Qasim ibn al-Fudayl from Hamzah ibn Humran from Dawud ibn Farqad from Humran who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, and abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhim al-Salam, about the kind of oath for which I owe expiation. They said, ‘It is when you take an oath for an act in which there is obedience to Allah if you do it and you do not do it, then there is expiation on you. If you take an oath for an act in which there is disobedience to Allah then its expiation is not to do it. An oath about the act which is not an obedience or disobedience does not have any valid effect.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/325)



4- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ دَرَّاجٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَحَدِهِمَا (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَمَّا يُكَفَّرُ مِنَ الأيْمَانِ فَقَالَ مَا كَانَ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ تَفْعَلَهُ فَحَلَفْتَ أَنْ لا تَفْعَلَهُ فَفَعَلْتَهُ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ إِذَا فَعَلْتَهُ وَمَا لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَيْكَ وَاجِباً أَنْ تَفْعَلَهُ فَحَلَفْتَ أَنْ لا تَفْعَلَهُ ثُمَّ فَعَلْتَهُ فَعَلَيْكَ الْكَفَّارَةُ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Jamil ibn Darraj from Zurarah who has narrated the following: “I once asked one of the two Imam, (abu Ja‘far or abu ‘Abd Allah), ‘Alayhim al-Salam, about the case of the kind of oath which requires one to pay an expiation. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is when you are obligated to do something and you take an oath not to do it but you do it then there is nothing on you when you do it. What is not obligatory on you to do and you take an oath not to do it then you do it, then there is expiation on you.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/325)



5- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ حَمْزَةَ بْنِ حُمْرَانَ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَيُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ الَّذِي فِيهِ الْكَفَّارَةُ مِنَ الأيْمَانِ فَقَالَ مَا حَلَفْتَ عَلَيْهِ مِمَّا فِيهِ الْبِرُّ فَعَلَيْهِ الْكَفَّارَةُ إِذَا لَمْ تَفِ بِهِ وَمَا حَلَفْتَ عَلَيْهِ مِمَّا فِيهِ الْمَعْصِيَةُ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ فِيهِ الْكَفَّارَةُ إِذَا رَجَعْتَ عَنْهُ وَمَا كَانَ سِوَى ذَلِكَ مِمَّا لَيْسَ فِيهِ بِرٌّ وَلا مَعْصِيَةٌ فَلَيْسَ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from Fadalah ibn Ayyub from ibn Muskan from Hamzah ibn Humran from Zurarah who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the kind of oath that makes expiation obligatory. He (the Imam) said, ‘If you take an oath for doing something which is a virtuous deed, there is expiation if you do not do it. If you take an oath to do something which is an act of disobedience you do not owe anything if you did not do it; other than these which are not virtuous or of disobedience do not have any valid effect.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/325)



6- الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يُقْسِمُ عَلَى الرَّجُلِ فِي الطَّعَامِ لِيَأْكُلَ فَلَمْ يَطْعَمْ هَلْ عَلَيْهِ فِي ذَلِكَ الْكَفَّارَةُ وَمَا الْيَمِينُ الَّتِي تَجِبُ فِيهَا الْكَفَّارَةُ فَقَالَ الْكَفَّارَةُ فِي الَّذِي يَحْلِفُ عَلَى الْمَتَاعِ أَنْ لا يَبِيعَهُ وَلا يَشْتَرِيَهُ ثُمَّ يَبْدُو لَهُ فِيهِ فَيُكَفِّرُ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ وَإِنْ حَلَفَ عَلَى شَيْ‏ءٍ وَالَّذِي عَلَيْهِ إِتْيَانُهُ خَيْرٌ مِنْ تَرْكِهِ فَلْيَأْتِ الَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ وَلا كَفَّارَةَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ مِنْ خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ.


6. Al-Husayn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla’ ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Washsha’ from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn abu ‘Abd Allah who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who takes an oath for a man to eat food but does not eat; if there is expiation on him and the kind of oath that makes expiation obligatory. He (the Imam) said, ‘Expiation is obligatory when one takes an oath not to sell an asset or buy but then he changes his mind. If one takes an oath about something which is better for him to do than not to do and he does what is good then there is no expiation on him, it is only of the temptations of Satan.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/326)



7- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ بُرَيْدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الأيْمَانِ وَالنُّذُورِ وَ الْيَمِينِ الَّتِي هِيَ للهِ طَاعَةٌ فَقَالَ مَا جَعَلَ للهِ فِي طَاعَةٍ فَلْيَقْضِهِ فَإِنْ جَعَلَ للهِ شَيْئاً مِنْ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَفْعَلْهُ فَلْيُكَفِّرْ يَمِينَهُ وَأَمَّا مَا كَانَتْ يَمِينٌ فِي مَعْصِيَةٍ فَلَيْسَ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from Fadalah ibn Ayyub from al-Qasim ibn Yazid from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about oath and Nadhr (a commitment) and swearing about that which is an act of obedience to Allah. He (the Imam) said, ‘What is an act of obedience you must do it. If one makes a commitment then does not fulfill, one must pay expiation; but if it is an oath in sin, then it does not have any valid effect.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/326)



8- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى جَمِيعاً عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ ثَعْلَبَةَ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ كُلُّ يَمِينٍ حَلَفَ عَلَيْهَا أَنْ لا يَفْعَلَهَا مِمَّا لَهُ فِيهِ مَنْفَعَةٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ فَلا كَفَّارَةَ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنَّمَا الْكَفَّارَةُ فِي أَنْ يَحْلِفَ الرَّجُلُ وَاللهِ لا أَزْنِي وَاللهِ لا أَشْرَبُ الْخَمْرَ وَاللهِ لا أَسْرِقُ وَاللهِ لا أَخُونُ وَأَشْبَاهِ هَذَا وَلا أَعْصِي ثُمَّ فَعَلَ فَعَلَيْهِ الْكَفَّارَةُ فِيهِ.


8. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa all from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr from Tha’labah from Zurarah who has narrated the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Every act for which one takes an oath not to do it and the act is beneficial in this and in the hereafter, there is no expiation for it. Kaffarah (expiation) becomes obligatory when one takes an oath and says, ‘By Allah I will not commit fornication, by Allah I will not drink wine, by Allah I will not steal, by Allah I will not act treacherously and so on and I will not disobey, but he does, then Kaffarah (expiation) becomes obligatory.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/326)



9- أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ جَمِيلٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَمَّا يُكَفَّرُ مِنَ الأيْمَانِ فَقَالَ مَا كَانَ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ تَفْعَلَهُ فَحَلَفْتَ أَنْ لا تَفْعَلَهُ ثُمَّ فَعَلْتَهُ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَمَا لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَيْكَ وَاجِباً أَنْ تَفْعَلَهُ فَحَلَفْتَ أَنْ لا تَفْعَلَهُ ثُمَّ فَعَلْتَهُ فَعَلَيْكَ الْكَفَّارَةُ.


9. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr has narrated from Jamil from Zurarah who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the kinds of oath for which Kaffarah (expiation) is obligatory. He (the Imam) said, ‘If something is obligatory for you to do and you take an oath not to do it, then you do it, you do not owe anything. If what is not obligatory on you to do and you take an oath not to do it but you do it, then Kaffarah (expiation) becomes obligatory on you.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/327)



10- أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ ثَعْلَبَةَ وَحَدَّثَنَا عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ مَيْسَرَةَ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) الْيَمِينُ الَّتِي تَجِبُ فِيهَا الْكَفَّارَةُ مَا كَانَ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ تَفْعَلَهُ فَحَلَفْتَ أَنْ لا تَفْعَلَهُ فَفَعَلْتَهُ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ لأنَّ فِعْلَكَ طَاعَةٌ للهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَمَا كَانَ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ لا تَفْعَلَهُ فَحَلَفْتَ أَنْ لا تَفْعَلَهُ فَفَعَلْتَهُ فَعَلَيْكَ الْكَفَّارَةُ.


10. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr has narrated from Thadabah and narrated to us from those who narrated to him from Muyassir who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The oath that makes expiation obligatory is that which is about an act that is necessary for you to do. However, you take an oath not to do it but you do it. Expiation is not due on you because your act is in obedience to Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious. If it is something that you must not do and you take an oath not to do but you do it, then expiation is obligatory on you.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/327)