4. Those Whose Association and Friendship Is Undesirable

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1ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ الْكِنْدِيِّ عَمَّنْ حَدَّثَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ كَانَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) إِذَا صَعِدَ الْمِنْبَرَ قَالَ يَنْبَغِي لِلْمُسْلِمِ أَنْ يَتَجَنَّبَ مُوَاخَاةَ ثَلاثَةٍ الْمَاجِنِ الْفَاجِرِ وَالأحْمَقِ وَالْكَذَّابِ فَأَمَّا الْمَاجِنُ الْفَاجِرُ فَيُزَيِّنُ لَكَ فِعْلَهُ وَيُحِبُّ أَنَّكَ مِثْلُهُ وَلا يُعِينُكَ عَلَى أَمْرِ دِينِكَ وَمَعَادِكَ وَمُقَارَبَتُهُ جَفَاءٌ وَقَسْوَةٌ وَمَدْخَلُهُ وَمَخْرَجُهُ عَارٌ عَلَيْكَ وَأَمَّا الأحْمَقُ فَإِنَّهُ لا يُشِيرُ عَلَيْكَ بِخَيْرٍ وَلا يُرْجَى لِصَرْفِ السُّوءِ عَنْكَ وَلَوْ أَجْهَدَ نَفْسَهُ وَرُبَّمَا أَرَادَ مَنْفَعَتَكَ فَضَرَّكَ فَمَوْتُهُ خَيْرٌ مِنْ حَيَاتِهِ وَسُكُوتُهُ خَيْرٌ مِنْ نُطْقِهِ وَبُعْدُهُ خَيْرٌ مِنْ قُرْبِهِ وَأَمَّا الْكَذَّابُ فَإِنَّهُ لا يَهْنِئُكَ مَعَهُ عَيْشٌ يَنْقُلُ حَدِيثَكَ وَيَنْقُلُ إِلَيْكَ الْحَدِيثَ كُلَّمَا أَفْنَى أُحْدُوثَةً مَطَرَهَا بِأُخْرَى مِثْلِهَا حَتَّى إِنَّهُ يُحَدِّثُ بِالصِّدْقِ فَمَا يُصَدَّقُ وَيُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْعَدَاوَةِ فَيُنْبِتُ السَّخَائِمَ فِي الصُّدُورِ فَاتَّقُوا الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَانْظُرُوا لأنْفُسِكُمْ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from ‘Amr Aban ibn ‘Uthman ‘Uthman from Muhammad ibn Salim al-Kindy from those whom he has mentioned (in his book) from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) who has said the following: “When Amir al-Mu’minin, Ali ibn abu Talib (a.s.) were to take his place on the pulpit he would say, ‘A Muslim, must avoid friendship with three kinds of people: A bold-faced indecent, an idiot and a liar. A bold-faced- indecent person attempts to make his acts seem attractive to you and loves that you behave like he does. Fie does not assist you in your religious matters and the matters of the hereafter. Closeness to him is injustice, hardheartedness, and his coming and going is disgrace for you. ‘An idiotic person does not indicate anything good for you, nor is there any hope in him to remove any bit of evil from you even if he may try his best. Perhaps he may want to benefit you, instead he only harms you. His death is better than his living, his silence is better than his speaking, and his being at a distance is better than his being nearby. ‘The liar is one with whom you can never have a happy life. Fie carries your words out and others’ words in to you. Whenever he may run out of words he then mixes them with others so much so that even when speaking the truth is not believed and he causes differences among people with animosity to sow envy in the hearts. You must be pious before Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Floly, and look after your own souls.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (12/533)



2ـ وَفِي رِوَايَةِ عَبْدِ الأعْلَى عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) لا يَنْبَغِي لِلْمَرْءِ الْمُسْلِمِ أَنْ يُوَاخِيَ الْفَاجِرَ فَإِنَّهُ يُزَيِّنُ لَهُ فِعْلَهُ وَيُحِبُّ أَنْ يَكُونَ مِثْلَهُ وَلا يُعِينُهُ عَلَى أَمْرِ دُنْيَاهُ وَلا أَمْرِ مَعَادِهِ وَمَدْخَلُهُ إِلَيْهِ وَمَخْرَجُهُ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ شَيْنٌ عَلَيْهِ.


2. In the Hadith of ‘Abd al-‘Ala’ from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) it is said that Amir al-Mu’minin, Ali ibn abu Talib (a.s.) said: “It is not proper for a Muslim man to become a friend of an indecent person; he tries to make his deeds seem attractive to him and loves that one to behave like him (indecent). He does not assist him in his religious matters or the matters of the hereafter. The coming and going of an indecent person is a disgrace to one.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/533)



3ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يُوسُفَ عَنْ مُيَسِّرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لا يَنْبَغِي لِلْمَرْءِ الْمُسْلِمِ أَنْ يُوَاخِيَ الْفَاجِرَ وَلا الأحْمَقَ وَلا الْكَذَّابَ.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Muhammad ibn Yusuf from Maysir from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) who has said the following: “It is not proper for a Muslim man to become friends with an indecent, an idiot and a liar.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (12/533)



4ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ (عَلَيهِما السَّلام) إِنَّ صَاحِبَ الشَّرِّ يُعْدِي وَقَرِينَ السَّوْءِ يُرْدِي فَانْظُرْ مَنْ تُقَارِنُ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ali ibn Asbat from certain individuals of his people from abu al-Hassan (a.s.) who has said the following: “Jesus, son of Mary has said, ‘An evil companion commits injustice and an evil friend brings destruction. Consider who to become friends with.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (12/534)



5ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ عَمَّارِ بْنِ مُوسَى قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) يَا عَمَّارُ إِنْ كُنْتَ تُحِبُّ أَنْ تَسْتَتِبَّ لَكَ النِّعْمَةُ وَتَكْمُلَ لَكَ الْمُرُوءَةُ وَتَصْلُحَ لَكَ الْمَعِيشَةُ فَلا تُشَارِكِ الْعَبِيدَ وَالسَّفِلَةَ فِي أَمْرِكَ فَإِنَّكَ إِنِ ائْتَمَنْتَهُمْ خَانُوكَ وَإِنْ حَدَّثُوكَ كَذَبُوكَ وَإِنْ نُكِبْتَ خَذَلُوكَ وَإِنْ وَعَدُوكَ أَخْلَفُوكَ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad and Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Muhammad ibn Sinan from ‘Ammar ibn Musa who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) once said to me, ‘O ‘Ammar, if you like bounties bring you delight, kindness becomes complete, and the affairs of life well- organized you then should not associate with the slaves and the lowly persons. If you trust them, they betray you, if they speak, they lie to you. If you may suffer a misfortune, they leave you out. If they promise you, they disregard it.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/534)



6ـ قَالَ وَسَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ حُبُّ الأبْرَارِ لِلأبْرَارِ ثَوَابٌ لِلأبْرَارِ وَحُبُّ الْفُجَّارِ لِلأبْرَارِ فَضِيلَةٌ لِلأبْرَارِ وَبُغْضُ الْفُجَّارِ لِلأبْرَارِ زَيْنٌ لِلأبْرَارِ وَبُغْضُ الأبْرَارِ لِلْفُجَّارِ خِزْيٌ عَلَى الْفُجَّارِ.


6. He has also said, ‘I heard abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) saying: “The virtuous ones’ love of other virtuous ones is a rewarding deed for them. Indecent ones loving the virtuous ones is a credit for the virtuous ones. Indecent ones’ hating the virtuous ones beautifies the virtuous ones. Virtuous one’s hating the indecent ones is a loss to the indecent ones.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح على الظاه ر - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (12/534)



7ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَمِيعاً عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عُذَافِرٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِمَا عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ وَأَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ أَبِيهِ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ لِي أَبِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ صَلَوَاتُ الله عَلَيْهِمَا يَا بُنَيَّ انْظُرْ خَمْسَةً فَلا تُصَاحِبْهُمْ وَلا تُحَادِثْهُمْ وَلا تُرَافِقْهُمْ فِي طَرِيقٍ فَقُلْتُ يَا أَبَتِ مَنْ هُمْ عَرِّفْنِيهِمْ قَالَ إِيَّاكَ وَمُصَاحَبَةَ الْكَذَّابِ فَإِنَّهُ بِمَنْزِلَةِ السَّرَابِ يُقَرِّبُ لَكَ الْبَعِيدَ وَيُبَعِّدُ لَكَ الْقَرِيبَ وَإِيَّاكَ وَمُصَاحَبَةَ الْفَاسِقِ فَإِنَّهُ بَائِعُكَ بِأُكْلَةٍ أَوْ أَقَلَّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَإِيَّاكَ وَمُصَاحَبَةَ الْبَخِيلِ فَإِنَّهُ يَخْذُلُكَ فِي مَالِهِ أَحْوَجَ مَا تَكُونُ إِلَيْهِ وَإِيَّاكَ وَمُصَاحَبَةَ الأحْمَقِ فَإِنَّهُ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَنْفَعَكَ فَيَضُرُّكَ وَإِيَّاكَ وَمُصَاحَبَةَ الْقَاطِعِ لِرَحِمِهِ فَإِنِّي وَجَدْتُهُ مَلْعُوناً فِي كِتَابِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي ثَلاثَةِ مَوَاضِعَ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَهَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ أَنْ تُفْسِدُوا فِي الأرْضِ وَتُقَطِّعُوا أَرْحامَكُمْ أُولئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ الله فَأَصَمَّهُمْ وَأَعْمى‏ أَبْصارَهُمْ وَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الَّذِينَ يَنْقُضُونَ عَهْدَ الله مِنْ بَعْدِ مِيثاقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ ما أَمَرَ الله بِهِ أَنْ يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الأرْضِ أُولئِكَ لَهُمُ اللَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوءُ الدَّارِ وَقَالَ فِي الْبَقَرَةِ الَّذِينَ يَنْقُضُونَ عَهْدَ الله مِنْ بَعْدِ مِيثاقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ ما أَمَرَ الله بِهِ أَنْ يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الأرْضِ أُولئِكَ هُمُ الْخاسِرُونَ.


7. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father all from ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman from Muhammad ibn ‘Adhafir from certain individuals of their people from Muhammad ibn Muslim and abu Hamza from abu ‘Abd Allah and his father (a.s.) who has said the following: “My father, Ali ibn al-Husayn (a.s.) once said to me, ‘My son, look for five kinds of people. Do not befriend them, speak to or accompany them on a road.’ 1 then asked, ‘O father, who are they? Define them for me.’ He said, ‘Never befriend a liar; he is like a mirage. He shows what is far very near and what is near, in fact, very far. Never befriend a sinful person; he may sell you for a meal or even less. Never befriend a stingy person; he betrays you in the matter of his property at a time when you need help urgently. Never befriend an idiotic person; he may intend to benefit you, instead he causes you injuries. Never befriend one who has failed to maintain good relations with relatives; I have found him condemned in the book of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, in three places. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said: “If you ignore the commands of Allah, would you then also spread evil in the land and sever the ties of kinship? (47:22) Allah has condemned these people and made them deaf, dumb, and blind.” (47:23) ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, “Those who disregard their covenant with Allah after He has taken such a pledge from them, who sever the proper relations that Allah has commanded them to establish, and those who spread evil in the land will have Allah’s condemnation instead of reward and will face the most terrible end.” (13:25) ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, “. . . who break their established covenant with Him and the relations He has commanded to be kept and who spread evil in the land. These are the ones who lose a great deal.”’” (2:27)


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/535)



8ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ الْمُحَارِبِيَّ يَرْوِي عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) عَنْ آبَائِهِ (عَلَيهِم السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) ثَلاثَةٌ مُجَالَسَتُهُمْ تُمِيتُ الْقَلْبَ الْجُلُوسُ مَعَ الأنْذَالِ وَالْحَدِيثُ مَعَ النِّسَاءِ وَالْجُلُوسُ مَعَ الأغْنِيَاءِ.


8. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Musa ibn al-Qasim who has said the following: “I heard al-Muharibi narrate from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) from his ancestors (a.s.) who has said, ‘The Messenger of Allah has said, “Association with three kinds of people deadens the heart (reason): association with the lowly, speaking to women and sitting with the wealthy.”’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/535)



9ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ أَبِي الْبِلادِ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ قَالَ قَالَ لُقْمَانُ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) لإبْنِهِ يَا بُنَيَّ لا تَقْتَرِبْ فَتَكُونَ أَبْعَدَ لَكَ وَلا تَبْعُدْ فَتُهَانَ كُلُّ دَابَّةٍ تُحِبُّ مِثْلَهَا وَإِنَّ ابْنَ آدَمَ يُحِبُّ مِثْلَهُ وَلا تَنْشُرْ بَزَّكَ إِلا عِنْدَ بَاغِيهِ كَمَا لَيْسَ بَيْنَ الذِّئْبِ وَالْكَبْشِ خُلَّةٌ كَذَلِكَ لَيْسَ بَيْنَ الْبَارِّ وَالْفَاجِرِ خُلَّةٌ مَنْ يَقْتَرِبْ مِنَ الزِّفْتِ يَعْلَقْ بِهِ بَعْضُهُ كَذَلِكَ مَنْ يُشَارِكِ الْفَاجِرَ يَتَعَلَّمْ مِنْ طُرُقِهِ مَنْ يُحِبَّ الْمِرَاءَ يُشْتَمْ وَمَنْ يَدْخُلْ مَدَاخِلَ السُّوءِ يُتَّهَمْ وَمَنْ يُقَارِنْ قَرِينَ السَّوْءِ لا يَسْلَمْ وَمَنْ لا يَمْلِكْ لِسَانَهُ يَنْدَمْ.


9. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from certain individuals of his people from Ibrahim ibn abu al-Balad from those whom he has mentioned (in his book) who has said the following: “Luqman (mentioned in Chapter 3 1 of the Holy Quran), peace be upon him, said to his son, ‘Do not become very close (to people), lest you become the farthest from them (frequent involvement may cause friction and disturbance) and do not keep very far in total isolation and oblivion. Every moving thing loves its kind and the sons of Adam love their kind. Do not spread your goods when there is demand. Just as there is no friendship between the wolf and the sheep so also there is no friendship between a virtuous person and an evildoer. Whoever moves close to asphalt and tar, it will smear him out so also is association with an evildoer whose manners may spread to his associates. Whoever likes to dispute will be abused. Whoever enters places of evil activities will be accused (of evil doing). Whoever associates with an evildoer will not remain safe. Whoever does not control his tongue will regret.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (12/536)



10ـ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ يَزِيدَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) أَنَّهُ قَالَ لا تَصْحَبُوا أَهْلَ الْبِدَعِ وَلا تُجَالِسُوهُمْ فَتَصِيرُوا عِنْدَ النَّاسِ كَوَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمْ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) الْمَرْءُ عَلَى دِينِ خَلِيلِهِ وَقَرِينِهِ.


10. Abu Ali al-Ash’ari has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from ibn abu Najran from ‘Umar ibn Yazid from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) who has said the following: “Do not befriend blasphemers and do not associate with them; people may consider you as one of them. The Messenger of Allah has said, ‘A man follows the religion of his friend and associates.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: سكت عن ه - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (12/536)



11ـ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنِ الْحَجَّالِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ يَعْقُوبَ الْهَاشِمِيِّ عَنْ هَارُونَ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) إِيَّاكَ وَمُصَادَقَةَ الأحْمَقِ فَإِنَّكَ أَسَرَّ مَا تَكُونُ مِنْ نَاحِيَتِهِ أَقْرَبُ مَا يَكُونُ إِلَى مَسَاءَتِكَ.


11. Abu Ali al-Ash’ari has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from al- Hajjal from Ali ibn Ya’qub al-Hashimi from Harun ibn Muslim from ‘Ubayd ibn Zurara who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) has said, ‘Never befriend an idiotic person; the more delightful you may become from his side the closer it will get to your misfortune.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: سكت عن ه - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (12/536)