97. The reason due to which the tribute (tax) is exempted from the women, and the disabled, and the blind, and the very aged, and the children, and it has been lifted from them

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أبي رحمه الله قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن القاسم بن محمد الاصبهاني، عن سليمان بن داود المنقري، عن عيسى بن يونس، عن الاوزاعي عن الزهري عن علي بن الحسين (ع) قال، سألته عن النساء كيف سقطت الحزية ورفعت عنهن؟ فقال لان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله نهى عن قتل النساء والولدان في دار الحرب الا أن تقاتل وان قاتلت ايضا فامسك عنها ما امكنك ولم تخف خللا فلما نهي عن قتلهن في دار الحرب كان ذلك في دار الاسلام اولى ولو امتنعت ان تؤدي الجزية لم يمكن قتلها، فلما لم يمكن قتلهما رفعت الجزية عنها ولو منع الرجال وابوا أن يؤدوا الجزية كانوا ناقضين للعهد وحلت دماؤهم وقتلهم لان قتل الرجال مباح في دار الشرك وكذلك المقعد من أهل الشرك والذمة والاعمى والشيخ الفاني والمرأة والولدان في ارض الحرب فمن اجل ذلك رفعت عنهم الجزية.


1. My father said, ‘Sa’ad Bin Abdullah narrated to us, from Al Qasim Bin Muhammad Al Asbahany, from Suleyman Bin Dawood Al Manqary, from Isa Bin Yunus, from Al Awzaie, from Al Zuhry, (The narrator says) ‘I asked Ali (asws) Bin Al-Husayn (asws) about the women, how was the tax exempted from the women and raised from them?’ So he (asws) said: ‘Because Rasool-Allah (saww) prohibited from killing the women and the children in the house of war (battlefield) except if they are fighting, and even if they are fighting as well. Therefore, restrain your hand from them as far as possible, and do not fear the confusion. So when he (saww) prohibited from killing them in the house of war (battlefield), and that was in the house of Al-Islam first, and if they were to refuse to pay the tax, it was not possible to kill them. So when it was not possible to kill them, the tax was lifted from them. And if the men were to prevent and refuse to pay the tax, they would have been contradicting the covenant, and shedding of their blood and killing them would be Permissible, because killing the men is Permissible in the house of Polytheism. And similar to that are the disabled from the people of Polytheism, and Al-Zimma (ones under responsibility), and the blind, and the very aged, and the women and the children, in the land of war. Thus, it was due to that, the tax was lifted from them’.




أبي رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن يحيى عن محمد بن أحمد عن سهل بن زياد عن علي بن الحكم عن فضيل بن عثمان الاعور قال: سمعت ابا عبد الله (ع) يقول ما من مولود ولد إلا على الفطرة فابواه يهود انه وينصر انه ويمجسانه وانما أعطى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله الذمة وقبل الجزية عن رؤس اولئك باعيانهم على ان لا يهودوا ولا ينصروا ولا يمجسوا فاما الاولاد واهل الذمة اليوم فلا ذمة لهم.


2. My father said, ‘Muhammad Bin Yahya narrated to us, from Muhammad Bin Ahmad, from Sahl Bin Ziyad, from Ali Bin Al Hakam, from Fazeyl Bin Usman al Awr who said, ‘I heard Abu Abdullah (asws) saying: ‘There is none from a child born except that it is upon the nature, So it is their parents who make them into Jews, and Christians, and Magians. But rather, Rasool-Allah (saww) gave them the protection and accepted the tribute (tax) from their chiefs by their pledging that they would not be turning them to Judaism, nor Christianity, nor Magianism. So, as for the children of the people of responsibility (اهل الذمة) today, so there is no responsibility for them’.




حدثنا محمد بن موسى بن المتوكل رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا عبد الله بن جعفر الحميرى عن احمد بن محمد بن عيسى عن الحسن بن محبوب عن علي بن رياب عن زرارة عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: ان رسول الله قبل الجزية من أهل الذمة على ان لا يأكلوا الربى ولا يأكلوا لحم الخنزير ولا ينكحوا الاخوات ولا بنات الاخ ولا بنات الاخت فمن فعل ذلك منهم برءت ذمة الله وذمة رسوله وقال ليست اليوم لهم ذمة.


3. Muhammad Bin Musa Bin Al Mutawakkal narrated to us, from Abdullah Bin Ja’far Al Humeyri, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Isa, from Al Hassan Bin Mahboub, from Ali Bin Rayab, from Zarara, Abu Abdullah (asws) has said that Rasool-Allah (saww) accepted the tax from the people of the responsibility (أهل الذمة) upon (the condition that) they would not consume the interest, nor eat the flesh of the swine, nor marry sisters, not daughters of the brother, nor daughters of the sister. So the one who did that, from among them, would be free from the responsibility of Allah (azwj), and responsibility of His (azwj) Rasool (saww)’. And he (asws) said: ‘There is no responsibility today’.