96. Miscellaneous reasons for the ZakatBack to book
أبي رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن يحيى العطار عن محمد بن احمد عن محمد ابن معروف، عن أبي الفضل، عن علي بن مهزيار عن اسماعيل بن سهل، عن حماد ابن عيسى، عن حريز، عن زرارة قال: قلت لابي جعفر (ع) رجل كانت عنده دراهم اشهرا فحولها دنانير فحال عليها منذ يوم ملكها دراهم حول ايزكيها؟ قال لا ثم قال أرايت لو ان رجلا دفع اليك مائة بعير واخذ منك مائتي بقرة فلبثت عنده اشهرا ولبثت عندك اشهرا فموتت عندك ابله وموتت عنده بقرك اكنتما تزكيانها؟ فقلت لا قال كذلك الذهب والفضة ثم قال: وان حولت برا أو شعيرا ثم قلبته ذهبا أو فضة فليس عليك فيه شئ إلا أن يرجع ذلك الذهب أو تلك الفضة بعينها أو عينه فان رجع ذلك اليك فان عليك الزكاة لانك قد ملكتها حولا قلت له: فان لم يخرج ذلك الذهب من يدي يوما قال ان خلط بغيره فيها فلا بأس ولا شئ فيما رجع اليك منه ثم قال ان رجع اليك باسره بعد أياس منه فلا شئ عليك فيه إلا حولا، قال: فقال زرارة عن أبي جعفر (ع) ليس في النيف شئ حتى يبلغ ما يجب فيه واحد ولا في الصدقة والزكاة كسور ولا تكون شاة ونصف ولا بعير ونصف ولا خمسة دراهم ونصف ولا دينار ونصف ولكن يؤخذ الواحد ويطرح ما سوى ذلك حتى يبلغ ما يؤخذ منه واحد فيؤخذ من جميع ماله، قال: قال زرارة وابن مسلم قال أبو عبد الله (ع) أيما رجل كان له مال وحال عليه الحول فانه يزكيه، قلت له فان وهبه قبل حوله بشهر أو بيوم، قال ليس عليه شئ اذن، قال: وقال زرارة عنه انه قال انما هذا بمنزلة رجل أفطر في شهر رمضان يوما في إقامته ثم خرج في آخر النهار في سفر فاراد بسفره ذلك ابطال الكفارة التي وجبت عليه وقال انه حين رأي الهلال الثاني عشر وجبت عليه الزكاة ولكنه لو كان يوهبها قبل ذلك لجاز ولم يكن عليه شئ بمنزلة من خرج ثم أفطر إنما لا يمنع الحال عليه فاما ما لم يحل عليه فله منعه ولا يحل له منع مال غيره فيما قد حل عليه، قال زرارة: قلت مائتا درهم بين خمس اناس أو عشرة حال عليه الحول وهي عندهم ايجب عليهم زكاتها؟ قال لا، هي بمنزلة تلك - يعنى جوابه في الحرث - ليس عليهم شئ حتى يتم لكل انسان منهم مائتا درهم قلت وكذلك في الشاة والابل والبقر والذهب والفضة وجميع الاموال قال نعم، قال زرارة، وقلت له رجل كانت عنده مائتا درهم فوهبها لبعض اخوانه أو ولده أو لاهله فرارا بها من الزكاة فعل ذلك قبل حلها بشهر قال إذا دخل الشهر الثاني عشر فقد حال عليه الحول ووجبت عليه فيها الزكاة قلت له فان احدث فيها قبل الحول قال جاز ذلك له، قلت له فانه فربها من الزكاة قال ما ادخل على نفسه اعظم مما منع من زكاتها فقلت له أنه يقدر عليها فقال وما علمه أنه يقدر عليها وقد خرجت من ملكه قلت فانه دفعها إليه على شرط فقال انه إذا سماها هبة جازت الهبة وسقط الشرط وضمن الزكاة، قلت له كيف يسقط الشرط ويمضى الهبة ويضمن وتجب الزكاة؟ قال هذا شرط فاسد والهبة المضمونة ماضية والزكاة لازمة عقوبة له ثم قال: إنما ذلك له إذا اشترى بها دارا وارضا أو متاعا قال زرارة قلت له ان اباك قال لي من فربها من الزكاة فعليه أن يؤديها فقال صدق أبي (ع) عليه أن يؤدي ما وجب عليه وما لم يجب فلا شئ عليه فيه ثم قال (ع) أرأيت لو أن رجلا اغمى عليه يوما ثم مات قبل أن يؤديها أعليه شئ؟ قلت لا إنما يكون ان افاق من يومه ثم قال لو ان رجلا مرض في شهر رمضان ثم مات فيه اكان يصام عنه؟ قلت لا، قال وكذلك الرجل لا يؤدي عن ماله إلا ما حل عليه.
1. My father said, ‘Muhammad Bin Yahya Al Ataar, from Muhammad Bin Ahmad, from Muhammad Ibn Marouf, from Abu Al Fazal, from Ali Bin Mahziyar, from Ismail Bin Sahl, from Hamaad Ibn Isa, from Hareyz, from Zarara who said, ‘I said to Abu Ja’far (a.s.), ‘A man has some Dirhams with him for months, so he changed them over to Dinaars. So a year had passed since he owned the Dirhams, shall he purify these (pay Zakat)?’ He (a.s.) said: ‘No’. Then he (a.s.) said: ‘Do you see, if a man were to hand over to a hundred camels, and take from you a hundred cows, so these remain with him for months, and these remain with you for months. So his camel dies with you and your cow dies with him, would you both be purifying these (by Zakat)?’ So I said, ‘No’. He (a.s.) said: ‘Similar to that is the gold and the silver’. Then he (a.s.) said: ‘And if you were to change land or barley, then turn it into gold or silver, so there would not be anything upon you with regards to it, except that very gold or that very silver were to be returned. So if that were to return to you, there would be Zakat upon you as you would have owned it for a year’. I said to him (a.s.), ‘So if that did not go out from my hand for a day?’ He (a.s.) said: ‘If it has been mixed with something else in it, so there is no problem, and nothing with regards to what returns to you from it’. Then he (a.s.) said: ‘It returned to you with difficulty after you having despaired from it, so there is nothing upon you with regards to it except (after a) year’. (The narrator) said, ‘Zarara said, from Abu Ja’far (a.s.) having said: ‘There is nothing upon a half until it reaches what is Obligated in it, one, neither regarding the charity not the Zakat is there breaking, nor can it be a sheep and a half, nor a camel and a half, nor five Dirhams and a half, nor a Dinar and a half, but the one (whole) would be taken, and what is besides that would be subtracted until it reaches what can be taken from it as one (whole), so it would be taken from the entirety of his wealth’. (The narrator) said, ‘Zarara and Ibn Muslim said, ‘Abu Abdullah (a.s.) said: ‘Whichever man has wealth for himself, and a year passes by over it, so he should purify it (by Zakat)’. I said to him (a.s.), ‘So if he were to gift it before a year, by a month of a day before?’ He (a.s.) said: ‘There would be nothing upon him, then’. (The narrator) said, ‘Zarara said from him (a.s.), that he (a.s.) said: ‘But rather, this is at the status of a man who breaks his Fast in the Month of Ramazan one day due to his staying, then goes out at the end of the day on a journey. So, he intended by that journey of his to invalidate the expiation payable which would have been Obligated upon him’. And he (a.s.) said: ‘He had seen twelve new moons, and the Zakat is Obligated upon him, but if it was before that by a day, then it is allowed and there would not be anything upon him, being at the status of the one who went out, then broke his Fast. But rather, he cannot prevent from that upon which a year has passed by. As for what a year has not passed by upon, so he can prevent it (Zakat), and it is not Permissible for him to prevent the wealth other that it, upon which a year has passed upon’. Zarara said, ‘I said, ‘Two hundred Dirhams in between five people or ten, a year passes by over it, and it is with them, is the Zakat Obligated upon them?’ He (a.s.) said: ‘No, it is at that status meaning his (a.s.) answer with regards to the harvesting there would be nothing upon them until each human being from them has complete two hundred Dirhams’. I said, ‘And similar to that is with regards to the sheep, and the camel, and the cow, and the gold, and the silver, and the entirety of the wealth?’ He (a.s.) said: ‘Yes’. Zarara said, ‘And I said to him (a.s.), ‘A man who had two hundred Dirhams with him, so he gifted it to some of his brothers, or his children, or to his family, in order to escape from the Zakat, so that is a month before a year passes by?’ He (a.s.) said: ‘If the twelfth month has entered, so the year has passed over it and the Zakat would be Obligated upon him’. I said to him (a.s.), ‘So if he were to do it before the year?’ He (a.s.) said: ‘That is allowed for him’. I said to him (a.s.), ‘So he would have escaped by it, from the Zakat’. He (a.s.) said: ‘What he included upon himself is more grievous and what he prevent from its Zakat’. So I said to him (a.s.), ‘He has control over it’. So he (a.s.) said: ‘And what would make him know that he has control over it, and it has gone out from his ownership’. I said, ‘So he handed it over conditionally’. So he (a.s.) said: ‘If he has named it as a gift, the gift is allowed, and the condition is invalidated, and he is responsible for the Zakat’. I said to him (a.s.), ‘How was the condition invalidated, and the gift is ensured, and he is responsible and the Zakat is Obligated upon him?’ He (a.s.) said: ‘This condition is spoilt and the gift is condemnable, and the Zakat is necessitated as a Punishment for him’. Then he (a.s.) said: ‘But rather, that is for him if he were to buy a house with it, or a land, or chattels’. Zarara said, ‘I said to him (a.s.), ‘Your (a.s.) father (a.s.) said to me: ‘The one who escaped by it from the Zakat, so upon him is its paying it’. So he (a.s.) said: ‘My (a.s.) father (a.s.) spoke the truth. Upon him would be the fulfilment of what was Obligated upon him, and what was not Obligated, so there is nothing upon him with regards to it’. Then he (a.s.) said: ‘What is your view that a man fainted for a day, then died before he paid it, is there anything upon him?’ I said, ‘No. But rather, it would happen when he had fainted during his day’. Then he (a.s.) said: ‘Had the man been sick in the Month of Ramazan, then died in it, would there be Fasts for him?’ I said, ‘No’. He (a.s.) said: ‘Similar to that is the man who does not pay from his wealth except when a year passes by over it’.
حدثنا محمد بن موسى رحمه الله عن عبد الله بن جعفر الحميري عن أحمد ابن محمد عن الحسن بن محبوب عن عبد الله بن سنان قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله (ع) يقول: باع أبي (ع) من هشام بن عبد الملك ارضا له بكذا وكذا الف دينار واشترط عليه زكاة ذلك المال عشر سنين وانما فعل ذلك لان هشاما كان هو الوالي.
2. Muhammad Bin Musa narrated to us, from Abdullah Bin Ja’far Al Humeyri, from Ahmad Ibn Muhammad, from Al Hassan Bin Mahboub, from Abdullah Bin Sinan who said, ‘I heard Abu Abdullah (a.s.) saying: ‘My (a.s.) father (a.s.) agreed to sell a piece of his (a.s.) land to Hisham Bin Al-Malik for such and such thousand Dinars, and placed a condition over it of the Zakat of that wealth for ten years (to be paid by him). But rather, he (a.s.) did that because Hisham was the governor’.