343. The reason due to which there would be no reduction in the shares of the inheritors

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حدثنا علي بن أحمد رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله عن محمد بن اسماعيل عن علي بن العباس قال: حدثنا القاسم بن الربيع الصحاف عن محمد بن سنان ان ابا الحسن الرضا عليه السلام كتب إليه فيما كتب من جواب مسائله علة اعطاء النساء نصف ما يعطي الرجال من الميراث لان المرأة إذا تزوجت أخذت والرجل يعطي فلذلك وفر على الرجال، وعلة اخرى في اعطاء الذكر مثلي ما تعطى الانثى لان الانثى في عيال الذكر إن احتاجت وعليه أن يعولها وعليه نفقتها وليس على المرأة أن تعول الرجل، ولا تؤخذ بنفقته ان احتاج، فوفر على الرجل لذلك، وذلك قول الله تعالى (الرجال قوامون على النساء بما فضل الله بعضهم على بعض وبما انفقوا من أموالهم).


1. Ali Bin Ahmad narrated to us, from Muhammad Bin Abu Abdullah, from Muhammad Bin Ismail, from Ali Bin Al Abbas, from Al Qasim Bin Al Rabie Al Sahaaf, (It has been narrated) from Muhammad Bin Sinan that Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza (asws) wrote to him in answer regarding what he had asked him (asws): ‘The reason for giving the women half what is given to the men from the inheritance, is because the woman, when she marries, takes, and the man gives. Thus, it was due to that, it is a provision upon the men. And another reason for the giving to the males two similar (portions) of what is given to the female, is because the female is among the family of the male for the needs, and it is upon him that he is the breadwinner for her, and it is upon him to spend upon her for her expenses, and it is not upon the woman that she should be the bread winner for the man, nor for him to take the expenses if needed. So it is provided for the man, due to that, and these are the Words of Allah (azwj) the High [4:34] Men are the maintainers of women because Allah has Made some of them to excel others and because they spend out of their property’.




أخبرني علي بن حاتم قال: أخبرني القاسم بن محمد قال: حدثنا حمدان بن الحسين عن الحسين بن الوليد عن ابن بكير عن عبد الله بن سنان عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: قلت لاي علة صار الميراث للذكر مثل حظ الانثيين؟ قال: لما جعل لها من الصداق.


2. Ali Bin Hatim informed me, from Al Qasim Bin Muhammad, from Hamdan Bin Al Husayn, from Al Husayn Bin Al Waleed, from Ibn Bakeyr, from Abdullah Bin Sinan, (It has been narrated) Abu Abdullah (asws), said, ‘I said, ‘For which reason did the inheritance come to be for the male similar to the portion of two females?’ He (asws) said: ‘When he made for her, from the dowry’.




وعنه قال: حدثنا محمد بن أحمد الكوفي قال: حدثنا عبد الله بن أحمد النهيكي عن ابن أبي عمير عن هشام بن سالم ان ابن أبي العوجاء قال للاحول: ما بال المرأة الضعيفة لها سهم واحد وللرجل القوي الموسر سهمان؟ قال: فذكرت ذلك لابي عبد الله عليه السلام فقال: ان ليس لها عاقلة ولا نفقة ولا جهاد، وعد اشياء غير هذا، وهذا على الرجال فلذلك جعل له سهمان ولها سهم.


3. And from him, from Muhammad Bin Ahmad Al Kufy, from Abdullah Bin Ahmad Al Naheyki, from Ibn Abu Umeyr, (It has been narrated) from Hisham Bin Saalim that Ibn Abu Al Awja said to Al Howl, ‘What is the matter that the weak woman, for her is one portion, and for the strong man with money, are two portions?’ He said, ‘I mentioned that to Abu Abdullah (asws), so he (asws) said: ‘There is no rationale for her, nor any expenses, nor Jihaad, and a number of things other than this, and this is upon the men. Thus, it was due to that, two portions were made to be for him, and one portion for her’.




حدثنا أبو الحسن محمد بن عمر بن علي بن عبد الله البصري قال: حدثنا أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله بن أحمد بن خالد بن جبلة الواعظ قال: حدثنا أبو القاسم عبد الله بن أحمد بن عامر الطائي قال: حدثنا أبي قال: حدثنا علي بن موسى الرضا عن ابيه عن آبائه عن أمير المؤمنين عليهم السلام انه سأله رجل من أهل الشام عن مسائل فكان فيما سأله ان قال له: لم صار الميراث للذكر مثل حظ الانثيين؟ قال: من قبل السنبلة كان عليها ثلاث حبات فبادرت إليها حواء فاكلت منها حبة واطعمت آدم حبتين، فمن أجل ذلك ورث الذكر مثل حظ انثيين.


4. Abu Al Hassan Muhammad Bin Umar Bin Ali Bin Abdullah Al Basry narrated to us, from Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bin Abdullah Bin Ahmad Bin Khalid Bin Jabala Al Waiz, from Abu Al Qasim Abdullah Bin Ahmad Bin Aamir Al Ta’aiy, from his father, (It has been narrated) from Ali (asws) Bin Musa Al-Reza (asws) from his (asws) father (asws), from his (asws) forefathers (asws), from Amir Al-Momineen (asws) that a man from the people of Syria asked him (asws) certain questions. So, among what he asked him (asws) was that he said to him (asws), ‘Why did the inheritance come to be for the males similar to two portions of the females?’ He (asws) said: ‘From before, the ear (of the corn) had three seed. So Hawwa (as) took the initiative to it, and ate one see from it, and fed Adam (as) two seeds. So, it is due to what the male inherits similar to the portion of two females’.