33. The reason due to which Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic Obligated five Prayers upon the people during five timings

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حدثنا محمد بن علي ماجيلويه، عن عمه محمد بن أبي القاسم، عن أحمد بن أبي عبد الله، عن أبي الحسن علي بن الحسين البرقي، عن عبد الله بن جبلة، عن معاوية بن عمار، عن الحسن بن عبد الله، عن آبائه، عن جده الحسن بن علي بن أبي طالب (عليهما السلام)، قال: «جاء نفر من اليهود إلى رسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله)، فسأله أعلمهم عن مسائل، فكان فيما سأله، [أن‏] قال: أخبرني عن الله عز و جل، لأي شي‏ء فرض هذه الخمس صلوات، في خمس مواقيت على أمتك، في ساعات الليل و النهار؟ فقال النبي (صلى الله عليه و آله): إن الشمس عند الزوال لها حلقة تدخل فيها، فإذا دخلت فيها زالت الشمس فيسبح كل شي‏ء دون العرش بحمد ربي جل جلاله، و هي الساعة التي يصلي علي فيها ربي، ففرض الله عز و جل علي و على أمتي فيها الصلاة، و قال: أَقِمِ الصَّلاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلى غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ ، و هي الساعة التي يؤتى فيها بجهنم يوم القيامة، فما من مؤمن يوافق تلك الساعة أن يكون ساجدا، أو راكعا، أو قائما، إلا حرم الله جسده على النار. و أما صلاة العصر، فهي الساعة التي أكل فيها آدم من الشجرة فأخرجه الله من الجنة، فأمر الله عز و جل ذريته بهذه الصلاة إلى يوم القيامة، و اختارها لامتي، فهي من أحب الصلوات إلى الله عز و جل، و أوصاني أن أحفظها من بين الصلوات. و أما صلاة المغرب، فهي الساعة التي تاب الله عز و جل فيها على آدم، و كان بين ما أكل من الشجرة و بين ما تاب الله عليه ثلاث مائة سنة من أيام الدنيا، و في أيام الآخرة يوم كألف سنة ما بين العصر و العشاء، فصلى آدم ثلاث ركعات: ركعة لخطيئته، و ركعة لخطيئة حواء، و ركعة لتوبته، فافترض الله عز و جل هذه الركعات الثلاث على امتي، و هي الساعة التي يستجاب فيها الدعاء، فوعدني ربي عز و جل أن يستجيب لمن دعاه فيها، و هي الصلاة التي أمرني بها ربي في قوله عز و جل: فَسُبْحانَ اللَّهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَ حِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ. و أما صلاة العشاء الآخرة، فإن للقبر ظلمة، و ليوم القيامة ظلمة، فأمرني الله عز و جل و امتي بهذه الصلاة في ذلك الوقت لتنور القبور، و ليعطيني و امتي النور على الصراط، و ما من قدم مشت إلى صلاة العتمة إلا حرم الله جسدها على النار، و هي الصلاة التي اختارها الله للمرسلين قبلي. و أما صلاة الفجر، فإن الشمس إذا طلعت تطلع على قرني شيطان، فأمرني الله عز و جل أن اصلي صلاة الغداة قبل طلوع الشمس، و قبل أن يسجد لها الكافر، فتسجد امتي لله عز و جل، و سرعتها أحب إلى الله عز و جل، و هي الصلاة التي تشهدها ملائكة الليل، و ملائكة النهار. قال اليهودي: صدقت، يا محمد».


1. ‘Muhammad Bin Ali Majaylawiya narrated to us, from his uncle Muhammad Bin Abu Al-Qasim, from Ahmad Bin Abu Abdullah, from Abu Al-Hassan Ali Bin Al-Husayn Al-Barqy, from Abdullah Bin Jabalat, from Muawiya Bin Amaar, from Al-Hassan Bin Abdullah, from his forefathers, (It has been narrated) from his grandfather (a.s.) Al-Hassan (a.s.) Bin Ali (a.s.) Bin Abu Talib (a.s.) having said: ‘A number of Jews came up to Rasool-Allah (saww), so they asked him (a.s.) to know about certain issues. From what they questioned him (saww) was, ‘Inform me about Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic, for which thing did He (azwj) Obligate these five (daily) Prayers during the five times, upon your (saww) community, in the hours of the night and the day?’ So the Prophet (saww) said: ‘The sun, during its meridian, a ring enters into it. So when it enters the ring, the sun sets. So everything underneath the Throne Glorifies my (saww) Lord (azwj) Majestic is His (azwj) Majesty. And this is the times in which my (saww) Lord (azwj) Sends Blessings upon me (saww). Therefore Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic has Obligated the Prayer upon me (saww) and my (saww) community, and Said [17:78] Establish Prayer from the declining of the sun till the darkness of the night. And this is the time in which the Hell would be Brought on the Day of Judgement. So there is none from the Believers who would fall down into Prostration, of bowing, or standing, except that Allah (azwj) would Prohibit his body to the Fire. And as for the mid-afternoon (العصر) Prayer, so it is the time in which Adam (as) ate from the tree. So Allah (azwj) Exited him (as) from the Paradise. Thus, Allah (azwj) Commanded his (as) descendants by this Prayer (العصر) up to the Day of Judgement, and Chose it for my (saww) community. This is the most beloved Prayer to Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic, and He (azwj) Bequeathed to me (saww) that I (saww) should preserve it, from between the Prayers. And as for the Evening (المغرب) Prayer, so it is the time in which Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic Turned (Mercifully) to Adam (as). And there was a duration of three hundred years from the days of the world between what he (as) ate from the tree and Allah (azwj) having Turned Mercifully to him (as). And in the days of the Hereafter, a day is like a thousand years of what is between the ‘Asr’ and the ‘Isha’. So, Adam (as) Prayed three Cycles one Cycle for his (as) error, and a Cycle for the error of Hawwa (as), and a Cycle for repenting to Him (azwj). So Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic Obligated these Cycles upon my (saww) community, and it is the time in which He (azwj) Answers the supplication. My (saww) Lord (azwj) Mighty and Majestic has Promised me (saww) that He (azwj) would Answer the one who supplicates in it. And it is the time in which my (saww) Lord (azwj) Commanded me (saww) for it, in the Words of the Mighty and Majestic [30:17] Therefore Glorify Allah when you come up to the evening and when you come up to the morning’. And as for the last Evening (العشاء) Prayer so there would be darkness in the graves, and darkness on the Day of Judgement. Thus Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic Commanded me (saww) and my (saww) community for this Prayer, in that time for the heat of the graves, and He (azwj) would be Giving me (saww) and my (saww) community, the light upon the Bridge (الصراط), and there is none from the feet which would walk to the last Evening (العشاء) Prayer, except that Allah (azwj) would Prohibit its body upon the Fire. And this is the Prayer which Allah (azwj) had Chose for the Mursil Prophets (as) before me (saww)’. And as for the Dawn Prayer, so when the sun emerges, Satan (la) emerges upon my (saww) companions. Therefore, Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic Commanded me (saww) that I (saww) should Pray the Dawn Prayer before the emergence of the sun. Beforehand, the Infidels used to prostrate to it, but my (saww) community prostrates to Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic, and it is easily the most beloved to Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic. And it is the Prayer which is witnessed by the Angels of the night, and Angels of the day’. The Jew said, ‘You (saww) have spoken the truth, O Muhammad (saww)’.




حدثنا محمد بن موسى بن المتوكل قال: حدثنا علي بن الحسين السعد آبادى عن أحمد بن أبي عبد الله عن أبيه عن فضالة بنأيوب عن الحسين بن أبي العلا، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: لما أهبط الله آدم من الجنة ظهرت فيه شامة سوداء في وجهه (و) من قرنه إلى قدمه إلى قدمه فطال حزنه وبكائه على ما ظهر به فاتاه جبرئيل عليه السلام فقال له ما يبكيك يا آدم فقال: لهذه الشامة التي ظهرت بى، قال قم فصل فهذا وقت الصلاة الاولى فقام فصلى فانحطت الشامة إلى عنقه، فجاءه في وقت الصلاة الثانية فقال يا آذم قم فصل فهذا وقت الصلاة الثانية فقام فصلى فانحطت الشامة إلى سرته فجاءه وقت الصلاة الثالثة فقال يا آدم قم فصل فهذا وقت الصلاة الثالثة فقام فصلى فانحطت الشامة إلى ركبته فجاءه في الصلاة الرابعة فقال يا آدم قم فصل فهذا وقت الصلاة الرابعة فقام فصلى فانحطت الشامة إلى رجليه فجاءه في الصلاة الخامسة فقال يا آدم قم فصل فهذا وقت الصلاة الخامسة فقام فصلى فخرج منها فحمد الله واثنى عليه، فقال جبرئيل: يا آدم مثل ولدك في هذه الصلاة كمثلك في هذه الشامة من صلى من ولدك في كل يوم وليلة خمس صلوات خرج من ذنوبه كما خرجت من هذه الشامة.


2. Muhammad Bin Musa Al Mutawakkal narrated to us, from Ali Bin Al Husayn Al Sa’ad Abady, from Ahmad Bin Abu Abdullah, from his father, from Fazalat Bin Ayoub, from Al Husayn Bin Abu Al A’ala, Abu Abdullah (a.s.) has said: ‘When Allah (azwj) Caused Adam (as) to descend from the Paradise, a black mole appeared in his face and from his (as) head to his (as) feet. So he (as) prolonged his (as) grief and his (as) wailing upon what had appeared with him (as). So, Jibraeel (as) came over to him (as), and said to him (as): ‘What makes you (as) to cry, O Adam (as)?’ So he (as) said: ‘For these moles which have appeared upon me (as)’. He (as) said: ‘Arise and Pray, from this is a time for the first Prayer’. So he (as) arose, and Prayed, so the moles went down to his (as) neck. So he (as) came to him (as) at the time of the second Prayer, so he (as) said: ‘O Adam (as)! Arise and Pray, for this is a time for the second Prayer!’ So he (as) arose and Prayed, and the moles went down to his (as) navel. So he (as) came to him (as) at the time of the third Prayer and said: ‘O Adam (as)! Arise and Pray, for this is a time for the third Prayer!’ So he (as) arose and Prayed, and the moles went down to his (as) knees. So he (as) came to him (as) at the fourth Prayer and said: ‘O Adam (as)! Arise and Pray, for this is a time for the fourth Prayer’. So he (as) arose and Prayed, so the moles went down to his feet. So he (as) came to him (as) at the fifth Prayer, so he (as) said: ‘O Adam (as)! Arise and Pray, for this is a time for the fifth Prayer’. So he (as) arose and Prayed. So (the moles) went out from him (as) (completely)’. So Jibraeel (as) said: ‘O Adam (as)! The example for your (as) children in these Prayers is like your (as) example of being in these moles. The ones from your (as) children who Pray, five Prayers during the day and the night, his sins would come out from him just as you (as) have come out from these moles’.