300. The reason due to which there does not happen to be a stronghold with the people under responsibility (Ahl Al-Zimma)

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أبي رحمه الله قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله: حدثنا محمد بن الحسين عن ابن أبي عمير عن ابن اذينة عن بريدة عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: سألته عن القسامة فقال: الحقوق كلها البينة على المدعي واليمين على المدعي عليه إلا في الدماء خاصة فان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله بينما هو بخيبر إذا فقدت الانصار رجلا منهم فوجدوه قتيلا، فقالت الانصار فلان اليهودي قتل صاحبنا، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله للطالبين: اقيموا رجلين عدلين من غيركم اقده برمته، فان لم تجدوا شاهدين فاقيموا قسامة خمسين رجلاه اقده به برمته، فقالوا: يا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وإله ما عندنا شاهدان من غيرنا وانا لنكره ان نقسم على ما لم نره فوداه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله من عنده، ثم قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام ان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله انما حقن دماء المسلمين بالقسامة لكي إذا رأي الفاجر الفاسق فرصة من عدوه حجزه مخافة القسامة ان يقتل به، فكف عن قتله وإلا حلف المدعي عليهم قسامة خمسين رجلا ما قتلنا ولا علمنا قاتلا ثم اغرموا الدية إذا وجدوا قتيلا بين أظهرهم إذا لم يقسم المدعون.


1. My father said, ‘Sa’ad Bin Abdullah narrated to us, from Muhammad Bin Al Husayn, from Ibn Abu Umeyr, from Ibn Azina, from Bureyda, (It has been narrated) from Abu Abdullah (asws), said, ‘I asked him (asws) about the compurgation (sworn endorsements). So he (asws) said: ‘The rights, all of them, the (burden of the) proof is upon the claimant, and the swearing is upon the defendant, except regarding the blood in particular, for Rasool-Allah (saww), whilst he (saww) was a Khyber, the Helpers lost a man from among them, so they found him to have been killed. So the Helpers said, ‘So and so, the Jew killed our companion’. So Rasool-Allah (saww) said to the seekers (of revenge): ‘Establish two just men from others who saw the whole of it. So if you do not find two witnesses, then fifty men should establish sworn endorsements for the whole of it’. So they said, ‘O Rasool-Allah (saww)! There are no two witnesses with us from others, and we do not like that we should swear upon what we have not seen’. So Rasool-Allah (saww) paid the blood money from himself (saww)’. Then Abu Abdullah (asws) said that: ‘But rather, Rasool-Allah (saww) saved the blood-letting of the Muslims by the sworn endorsements in order that if an immoral evil doer sees a chance from (killing) his enemy, would fear the sworn endorsements in case he himself is killed by it, would refrain from killing him, otherwise the swear of the claimant, against him would be sworn endorsements of fifty men, ‘We neither killed nor do we have any knowledge of the killer’. Then they would have to pay the blood money if the victim was found to be among them, if the claimants haven’t sworn’.




حدثنا علي بن أحمد رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله عن محمد بن اسماعيل عن علي بن العباس قال: حدثنا القاسم بن الربيع الصحاف عن محمد بن سنان ان الرضا (ع) كتب إليه فيما كتب من جواب مسائله، العلة في البينة في جميع الحقوق على المدعي، واليمين على المدعي عليه ما خلا الدم، لان المدعي عليه جاحد ولا يمكنه اقامة البينة على الجحود، لانه مجهول وصارت البينة في الدم على المدعي عليه واليمين على المدعي لانه حوط يحتاط به المسلمين لئلا يبطل دم امرئ مسلم وليكون ذلك زاجرا وناهيا للقاتل لشدة اقامة البينة عليه، لان من شهد على انه لم يفعل قليل، وأما علة القسامة ان جعل خمسين رجلا، فلما في ذلك من التغليظ والتشديد والاحتياط لئلا يهدر دم امرئ مسلم.


2. Ali Bin Ahmad narrated to us, from Muhammad Bin Abu Abdullah, from Muhammad Bin Ismail, from Ali Bin Al Abbas, from Al Qasim Bin Rabie Al Sahaaf, (It has been narrated) from Muhammad Bin Sinan that Al-Reza (asws) wrote to him in answer to what he had written asking him (asws): ‘The reason with regards to the (burden of the) proof in the entirety of the rights, is upon the claimant, and the swearing is upon the defendant, except for the blood, because the defendant is a denial, and it is not possible for him to establish the proof upon the denial, because the matter is unknown. And the (burden of the) proof regarding the blood came to be upon the defendant, and the swearing upon the claimant, because it is a precaution for the Muslims in case the blood of a Muslim person be invalidated, and that would become an injunction and a prevention for the killer due to the severity of the establishment of the proof against him, because the ones who would testify that he did not do it, would be very few. And as for the reason for the sword endorsements, it has been made to be fifty men. So as for what is in that from the harshness, and the severity, and the precaution, perhaps the blood of a Muslim person be wasted’.




أبي رحمه الله عن سعد بن عبد الله عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى عن ابن أبي نجران عن عبد الله بن سنان عن أبي عبد الله (ع) قال: سألته عن القسامة، قال: هي حق ولو لا ذلك لقتل الناس بعضهم بعضا ولم يمكن بشئ، وانما القسامة حول يحتاط به الناس.


3. My father, from Sa’ad Bin Abdullah, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Isa, from Ibn Abu Najran, from Abdullah Bin Sinan, (It has been narrated) from Abu Abdullah (asws), said, ‘I asked him (asws) about the sworn endorsements. He (asws) said: ‘It is right, and had it not been for that, the people would kill each other and it would not come to anything. But rather, the sword endorsements (of fifty men), is a dissuasion, the people take precaution by it’.




حدثنا محمد بن علي ماجيلويه رحمه الله عن محمد بن يحيى العطار عن سهل بن زياد عن محمد بن عيسى عن يونس بن عبد الرحمن عن ابن سنان قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله (ع) يقول: انما وضعت القسامة لعلة الحوط يحتاط على الناس لكى إذا رأي الفاجر عدوه فر منه مخافة القصاص.


4. Muhammad Bin Ali Majaylawiya narrated to us, from Muhammad Bin Yahya Al Ataar, from Sahl Bin ziyad, from Muhammad Bin Isa, from Yunus Bin Abdul Rahman, from Ibn Sinan who said, ‘I heard Abu Abdullah (asws) saying: ‘But rather, the sworn endorsements have been placed for the reason of the dissuasion, a precaution upon the people, in case the immoral were to see his enemy, he would flee from him for fear of the (law of) retaliation’.