258. The reason due to which the (start of the) waiting period of divorced woman is from the day her husband divorces her, and the waiting period of woman widowed from her husband is from when the news (of his death) reaches her

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أبي رحمه الله عن عبد الله بن جعفر الحميري عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى عن علي بن اشيم عمن رواه من أصحابنا عن أبي عبد الله (ع) انه قيل له: لم جعل في الزنا أربعة من الشهود، وفي القتل شاهدان؟ فقال: ان الله تعالى أحل لكم المتعة وعلم انها ستنكر عليكم فجعل الاربعة الشهود احتياطا لكم لو لا ذلك لاتى عليكم وقل ما يجتمع أربعة على شهادة بامر واحد.


1. My father, from Abdullah Bin Ja’far Al Humeyri, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Isa, from Ali Bin Asheym, from the one who reported it, from our companions, (It has been narrated) from Abu Abdullah (asws), it having been said to him (asws), ‘Why have four witnesses been Made to be regarding adultery, and regarding murder, two witnesses?’ So he (asws) said: ‘Allah (azwj) the High Permitted for you the temporary marriage and Knew that it would be denied upon you, therefore He (azwj) Made the four witnesses as a precaution for you. Had it not been for that, they (people) would have come to you and said (accusing you of adultery). Four (persons) will not gather upon one testimony with one matter’.




حدثنا علي بن أحمد قال حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله عن محمد بن اسماعيل عن علي بن العباس قال: حدثنا القاسم بن الربيع الصحاف عن محمد بن سنان: أن الرضا عليه السلام كتب إليه فيما كتب من جواب مسائله: جعلت شهادة أربعة في الزنا واثنان في سائر الحقوق لشدة حصب المحصن، لان فيه القتل فجعلت الشهادة فيه مضاعفة مغلظة لما فيه من قتل نفسه وذهاب نسب ولده ولفساد الميراث.


2. Ali Bin Ahmad narrated to us, from Muhammad Bin Abu Abdullah, from Muhammad Bin Ismail, from Ali Bin Al Abbas, from Al Qasim Al Rabie Al Sahaaf, (It has been narrated) from Muhammad Bin Sinan that Al-Reza (asws) wrote to him in answer to his question: ‘The four testimonies have been Made to be with regards to the adultery, and two regarding the rest of the rights, due to the severity of (penalty involved) for the married ones, because therein is the killing (stoning to death), so the testimony was made to be more stricter due to what is therein from the killing of the soul, and the going away of the link to the child, and the spoilage of the inheritance’.




حدثنا محمد بن الحسن رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار عن العباس بن معروف عن علي بن مهزيار عن علي بن أحمد بن محمد عن أبيه عن اسماعيل ابن حماد بن أبي حنيفة عن أبيه حماد عن أبيه أبي حنيفة قال: قلت لابي عبد الله عليه السلام أيهما أشد الزنا أم القتل؟ قال: فقال القتل، قال: فقلت فما بال القتل جاز فيه شاهدان ولا يجوز في الزنا إلا أربعة؟ فقال لي: ما عندكم فيه يا أبا حنيفة، قال: قلت ما عندنا فيه إلا حديث عمر ان الله اخرج في الشهادة كلمتين على العباد قال: قال: ليس كذلك يا أبا حنيفة ولكن الزنا فيه حدان ولا يجوز أن يشهد كل أثنين على واحد لان الرجل والمرأة جميعا عليهما الحد، والقتل انما يقام الحد على القاتل ويدفع عن المقتول.


3. Muhammad Bin Al Hassan narrated to us, from Muhammad Bin Al Hassan Al Saffar, from Al Abbas Bin Marouf, from Ali Bin Mahziyar, from Ali Bin Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from his father, from Ismail Ibn Hamaad Bin Abu Haneefa, from his father, from Hamaad, from his father Abu Haneefa who said, ‘I said to Abu Abdullah (asws), ‘Which of the two is more severe, the adultery or the murder?’ So he (asws) said: ‘The murder’. So I said, ‘So what is the matter that for the murder, two testimonies are allowed, and it is not allowed regarding the adultery except for four?’ So he (asws) said to me: ‘What is there with you, O Abu Haneefa?’ I said, ‘There is nothing with us except for a Hadeeth of Umar that Allah (azwj) Took out two words regarding the testimony, upon the servants’. He (asws) said : ‘It is not like that, O Abu Haneefa! But, there are two Limits (Punishments) in adultery, and it is not allowed that one would testify upon each of the two, because the Limit is upon both, the man and the woman. And the murder, the Limit would be established upon the murderer, and pushed away from the murdered (victim)’.