253. The reason due to which the divorce does not take effect unless (if it is) upon the Book and the Sunnah

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حدثنا علي بن أحمد رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله عن محمد بن اسماعيل عن علي بن العباس قال: حدثنا القاسم بن الربيع الصحاف عن محمد بن سنان أن ابا الحسن علي بن موسى الرضا (ع) كتب إليه فيما كتب من جواب مسائله علة الطلاق ثلاثا لما فيه من المهلة فيما بين الواحدة إلى الثلاث لرغبة تحدث أو سكون غضب ان كان وليكون ذلك تخويفا وتأديبا للنساء وزجرا لهن عن معصية ازواجهن فاستحقت المرأة الفرقة والمباينة لدخولها فيما لا ينبغي من معصية زوجها. وعلة تحريم المرأة بعد تسع تطليقات فلا تحل له أبدا عقوبة لئلا يتلاعب بالطلاق ولا تستضعف المرأة وليكون ناظرا في أموره متيقظا معتبرا وليكون يائسا لها من الاجتماع بعد تسع تطليقات. وعلة طلاق المملوك اثنتين لان طلاق الامة على النصف وجعله اثنتين احتياطا لكمال الفرائض وكذلك في الفرق في العمدة للمتوفي عنها زوجها.

1. Ali Bin Ahmad narrated to us, from Muhammad Bin Abu Abdullah, from Muhammad Bin Ismail, from Ali Bin Al Abbas, from Al Qasim Bin Rabi’e Al Sahaaf, (It has been narrated) from Muhammad Bin Sinan that Abu Al-Hassan (a.s.) Ali (a.s.) Bin Musa Al-Ridha (a.s.) wrote to him in answer to what he had written asking him (a.s.): ‘Reason for the three divorces is due to what is therein from the time gap with regards to what is between the one to the third in order for desire to be re-kindled, or the anger to be settled if there was any, and for that to be a scare and a discipline for the women from disobeying their husbands accruing the separation and the quarrelling which would enter her into what is not befitting from disobeying her husband. And the reason for the Prohibition of the woman after nine divorces, so she would not be Permissible unto him, ever, as a punishment that perhaps he is playing with the divorce and belittling the woman, and that he would end up considering his affairs with more alertness, learning a lesson (from it), and he would become despaired from copulating with her after nine divorces. And reason for the divorces of the slaves, two, because a divorce of the slave girls is upon the half, and it has been made to be two, as a precaution in order to complete the Obligation. And similar to that is the difference regarding the waiting period of the widow whose husband has died’.

حدثنا محمد بن ابراهيم بن اسحاق الطالقاني رضي الله عنه قال حدثنا أحمد بن محمد الهمداني عن علي بن الحسن بن علي بن فضال عن أبيه قال: سألت الرضا عليه السلام عن العلة التي من أجلها لا تحل المطلقة للعدة لزوجها حتى تنكح زوجا غيره فقال: ان الله تبارك وتعالى انما اذن في الطلاق مرتين فقال تعالى (الطلاق مرتان فامساك بمعروف أو تسريح باحسان) يعني في التطليقة الثالثة، ولدخوله فيما كره الله تعالى له من الطلاق الثالث حرمها عليه فلا تحل له حتى تنكح زوجا غيره لئلا يوقع الناس الاستخفاف بالطلاق ولا تضار النساء.

2. Muhammad Bin Ibrahim Bin Is’haq Al Talaqany narrated to us, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Al Hamdany, from Ali Bin Al Hassan Bin Ali Bin Fazaal, from his father who said, ‘I asked Al-Ridha (a.s.) about the reason due to which the divorced woman is not Permissible for her husband until she married another husband, so he (a.s.) said: ‘Allah (azwj) Blessed and High has Permitted with regards to the divorce, twice. So the High Said [2:229] Divorce (is only Permissible) twice, then keep (them) in good fellowship or let (them) go with kindness Meaning in the third divorce, and due to the abhorrence for him to enter into the third divorce, Forbidden her unto him. Thus she would not be Permissible unto him until she marries another husband, lest the people fall upon belittling the divorce and hurt the women’.