222. The reason due to which Allah (azwj) Prohibited the wine, and the dead, and the blood, and flesh of the swine, and the monkey, and the bear, and the elephant, and the spleen

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حدثنا أبي رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا علي بن ابراهيم عن أبيه عن اسماعيل بن مهران عن محمد بن الحسن بن علان قال: سألت أبا الحسن عليه السلام عن المسوخ فقال اثنى عشر صنفا ولها علل، فاما الفيل فانه مسخ لانه كان ملكا زناء لوطيا ومسخ الدب لانه كان رجلا ديوثا ومسخت الارانب لانها كانت امرأة تخون زوجها ولا تغتسل من حيض ولا جنابة ومسخ الوطواط لانه كان يسرق تمور الناس ومسخ سهيل لانه كان عشارا باليمين، ومسخت الزهرة لانها كانت امرأة فتن بها هاروت وماروت وأما القردة والخنازير فانهم قوم من بني اسرائيل اعتدوا في السبت، وأما الجري والضب ففرقة من بني اسرائيل حين نزلت المائدة على عيسى لم يؤمنوا به فتاهوا، فوقعت فرقة في البحر وفرقة البر، وأما العقرب فانه كان رجلا نمامه، وأما الزنبور فكان لحاما يسرق في الميزان.


1. My father narrated to me, from Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Ismail Bin Mahran, from Muhammad Bin Al Hassan Bin A’alan who said, ‘I asked Abu Al-Hassan (asws) about the mutants, so he (asws) said: ‘There are twelve types and there are reasons for them. So, as for the elephant, so it was metamorphose because it was an adulterous king, a sodomist. And the bear was metamorphosed because it was an effeminate man (inviting other man to himself). And the rabbits have been metamorphosed because she was a woman who betrayed her husband, and did not used to wash from menstruation, nor sexual impurity. And the bat was metamorphosed because he used to steal the date of the people. And Saheyl (a sea creature) was metamorphosed because he was collecting taxes (unlawfully) at Al-Yemen. And Al-Zohra (a sea creature) was metamorphosed because she was the one by whom Harout and Marout were bewitched by. And as for the monkey and the pigs, so they were a people from the Children of Israel who exceeded with regards to the Sabbath. And as for the common basilisk (sea lizard) and the (land) lizard so these were a sect from the Children of Israel, when the meal descended upon Isa (as), they did not believe in it, so they strayed. Thus, a sect fell into the sea, and a sect upon the land. And as for the scorpion, so it was a scandal mongering man. And as for the wasp, it was a butcher who stole with regards to the weighing’.




حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي قال: حدثنا محمد بن أحمد بن اسماعيل العلوي: حدثني علي بن الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب قال: حدثنا علي بن جعفر عن أخيه موسى بن جعفر عن جعفر ابن محمد عليهم السلام قال: المسوخ ثلاثة عشر: الفيل والدب والارنب والعقرب والضب والعنكبوت والد عموص والجري والوطواط والقرد والخنزير والزهرة وسهيل، قيل يا ابن رسول الله ما كان سبب مسخ هؤلاء؟ قال: أما الفيل فكان رجلا جبارا لوطيا لا يدع رطبا ولا يابسا، وأما الدب فكان رجلا مخنثا يدعو الرجال إلى نفسه، وأما الارانب فكانت امرأة قذرة لا تغتسل من حيض ولا جنابة، ولا غير ذلك، وأما العقرب فكان رجلا همازا لا يسلم منه أحد، وأما الضب فكان رجلا اعرابيا يسرق الحاج بمحجنه، وأما العنكبوت فكانت امرأة سحرت زوجها، وأما الدعموص فكان رجلا نماما يقطع بين الاحبة وأما الجري فكان رحلا ديوثا يجلب الرجال على حلائله، وأما الوطواط فكان رجلا سارقا يسرق الرطب من رؤس النخل وأما القردة فاليهود اعتدوا في السبت، وأما الخنازير فالنصارى حين سألوا المائدة فكانوا بعد نزولها أشد ما كانوا تكذيبا، وأما سهيل فكان رجلا عشارا باليمن، وأما الزهرة فانها كانت امرأة تسمى ناهيد وهي التي تقول الناس انه افتتن بها هاروت وماروت.


2. Ali Bin Ahmad Bin Muhammad narrated to us, from Muhammad Bin Abu Abdullah Al Kufy, from Muhammad Bin Ahmad Bin Ismail Al Alawy, (It has been narrated) from Ali (asws) Bin Al-Husayn (asws) Bin Ali (asws) Bin Abu Talib (asws), from Ali son of Ja’far (asws), from his brother (asws) Musa (asws) Bin Ja’far (asws), from Ja’far (asws) Bin Muhammad (asws) having said: ‘The mutants are thirteen The elephant, and the bear, and the rabbit, and the scorpion, and the lizard, and the spider, and the triops australiensis (sea beetle), and the common basilisk (sea lizard), and the bat, and the monkey, and the pig, and Al-Zuhra (a sea creature), and Saheyl (a sea creature)’. It was said, ‘O son (asws) of Rasool-Allah (saww)! What was the cause for the metamorphosis of these?’ He (saww) said: ‘As for the elephant, so it was a tyrannous man, gay, did not leave a wet nor a dry (went to everything); and as for the bear so it was a man who invited the men to himself; and as for the rabbits, so it was a dirty woman who did not wash from the menstruation, nor from sexual impurities, nor from other than that; and as for the scorpion, so it was a fault-finding man, no one was safe from him; and as for the lizard, so it was an Bedouin man stealing from the pilgrims by his crosier (stick); and as for the spider, so it was a woman who bewitched her husband; and as for the triops australiensis (sea beetle), he was a scandal mongering man cutting off (relationships) between loved ones; and as for the common basilisk (water lizard), so it was a wandering cuckold bringing men to his wife; and as for the bat, so these were men who used to steal the date from the top of the palm tree; and as for the monkey, so there were Jews who had exceeded the Sabbath; and as for the pigs, so they were Christians, who had asked for the meal (from Prophet Isa (as)), so after it had descended, they were intense in their belying it; and as for Saheyl (a sea creature), so he used to collect taxes at Al-Yemen; and as for Al-Zuhra (a sea creature), so it was a woman called Naheed, and she was the one for whom the people are saying that she had Harout and Marout spellbound’.




حدثنا علي بن عبد الله الوراق رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله قال: حدثنا عباد بن سليمان عن محمد بن سليمان الديلمي عن الرضا عليه السلام انه قال: كانت الخفاش امرأة سحرت ضرة لها فمسخها الله تعالى خفاشا، وإن الفأر كان سبطا من اليهود غضب الله عليهم فمسخهم فأرا، وان البعوض كان رجلا يستهزئ بالانبياء عليهم السلام ويشتمهم ويكلح في وجوههم ويصفق بيديه فمسخه الله تعالى بعوضا وان القملة هي من الجسد وان نبيا من انبياء بني اسرائيل كان قائما يصلي إذا أقبل إليه سفيه من سفهاء بني اسرائيل فجعل يهزأ به ويكلح في وجهه فما برح من مكانه حتى مسخه الله سبحانه وتعالى قملة، وان الوزغ كان سبطا من اسباط بني اسرائيل يسبون اولاد الانبياء ويبغضونهم، فمسخهم الله أوزاغا وأما العنقاء، فمن غضب الله تعالى عليه، فمسخه وجعله مثله فنعوذ بالله من غضب الله ونقمته.


3. Ali Bin Abdullah Al Waraq narrated to us, from Sa’ad Bin Abdullah, from Abaad Bin Suleyman, from Muhammad Bin Suleyman Al Daylami, (It has been narrated) from Al-Reza (asws) having said: ‘The bat was a woman who enchanted her fellow wife, so Allah (azwj) Metamorphosed her as a bat; and the mouse was a tribe from the Jews. Allah (azwj) was Wrathful upon them, so He (azwj) Metamorphosed them as mice; and the mosquito was a man who used to mock a Prophet (as) from the Prophets (as) and insult them and scowling in their faces and clapping his hands, so Allah (azwj) the High Metamorphose him as a mosquito; And the louse, is from the body, and that a Prophet (as) from the Prophets (as) of the Children of Israel was standing, Praying, when a fool from the fools of the Children of Israel came over. So he went on to mock him (as) and scowling in his face. So he did not move from his place until Allah (azwj), Glorious is He (azwj), Metamorphosed him as a louse. And the salamander (a lizard) was a tribe from the tribes of the Children of Israel who were insulting the children of the Prophets (as) and begrudging them, so Allah (azwj) Metamorphosed then into salamanders. And as for the phoenix, so it is from the Wrath of Allah (azwj) the High upon it, so He (azwj) Metamorphosed it and Made it to be an example. Therefore, we seek Refuge with Allah (azwj) from the Wrath of Allah (azwj) and His (azwj) Retribution’.




حدثنا محمد بن علي ماجيلويه رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا محمد بن يحيى العطار عن محمد بن أحمد بن يحيى بن عمران الاشعري قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسين بن أبي الخطاب عن علي بن اسباط عن علي بن جعفر عن مغيرة عن أبي عبد الله عن أبيه عن جده عليهم السلام قال: المسوخ من بني آدم ثلاثة عشر صنفا منهم القردة والخنازير و الخفاش والضب والدب والفيل والدعموص والجري والعقرب وسهيل والقنفذ والزهرة والعنكبوت، فاما القردة فكانوا قوما ينزلون بلدة على شاطئ البحر اعتدوا في السبت فصادوا الحيتان فمسخهم الله تعالى قردة، وأما الخنازير فكانوا قوم من بني اسرائيل دعا عليهم عيسى بن مريم (ع) فمسخهم الله تعالى خنازيرا، وأما الخشاف، فكانت امرأة مع ضرة لها فسحرتها فمسخها الله تعالى خشافا، وأما الضب فكاب اعرابيا بدويا لا يرع عن قتل من مر به من الناس فمسخه الله تعالى ضبا، وأما الفيل فكان رجلا ينكح البهائم فمسخه الله تعالى فيلا وأما لدعموص فكان رجلا زاني الفرج لا يرع من شئ فمسخه الله تعالى دعموصا وأما الجري فكان رجلا نماما فمسخه الله تعالى جريا، وأما العقرب رجلا همازا لمازا فمسخه الله عقربا، وأما الدب فكان رجلا يسرق الحاج فمسخه الله تعالى دبا، وأما سهيل فكان رجلا عشارا صاحب مكاس فمسخه الله تعالى سهيلا، وأما الزهرة فكانت امرأة فتن بها هاروت وماروت فمسخها الله تعالى زهرة وأما العنكبوت فكانت امرأة سيئة الخلق عاصية لزوجها مولية عنه فمسخها الله تعالى عنكبوتا، وأما القنفذ فكان رجلا سيئ الخلق فمسخه الله تعالى قنذا.


4. Muhammad Bin Ali Majaylawiya narrated to us, from Muhammad Bin Yahya Al Ataar, from Muhammad Bin Ahmad Bin Yahya Bin Imran Al Ashary, from Muhammad Bin Al Husayn Bin Abu Al Khataab, from Ali Bin Asbaat, from Ali Bin Ja’far,from Mugheira, (It has been narrated) from Abu Abdullah (asws), from his (asws) father (asws), from his (asws) grandfather (asws) having said: ‘The metamorphosed ones from the Children of Adam (as) are thirteen types among them are the monkeys, and the pigs, and the bat and the lizard, and the bear, and the elephant, and the triops australiensis (sea beetle), and the common basilisk (water lizard), and the scorpion, and Saheyl (a sea creature), and the hedgehog, and Al-Zuhra (a sea creature), and the spider. So, as for the monkey, so they used to be a people who encamped at the coast of the sea, exceeded in the Sabbath, so they fished the whales. Therefore, Allah (azwj) the High Metamorphosed them as monkeys; and as for the pigs, so they used to be a people from the Children of Israel. Isa (as) Bin Maryam (as) supplicated against them, So Allah (azwj) Metamorphosed them as pigs; and as for the bats, so it was a woman with a fellow wife of hers. So she spellbound her, therefore Allah (azwj) the High Metamorphosed her as a bat; and as for the lizard, so he was an Arab Bedouin, not hesitating from killing everyone from the people who passed by, so Allah (azwj) metamorphosed him as a lizard; And as for the elephant, so it was a man who used to copulate with the animals, so Allah (azwj) the High Metamorphosed him as an elephant; and as for the triops australiensis (sea beetle), so it was an adulterous man for the relief, not caring about anything, so Allah (azwj) the High Metamorphosed him as a triops australiensis (sea beetle); and as for the common basilisk (water lizard), so it was a scandal mongering man, so Allah (azwj) metamorphosed him as a common basilisk (water lizard); and as for the scorpion, it was a fault-finding man, for finding faults, so Allah (azwj) Metamorphosed him as a scorpion; and as for the bear, so it was a man who used to steal from the pilgrims, so Allah (azwj) Metamorphosed him as a bear; and as for Saheyl (a sea creature), so it was a man who used to collect (unlawful) taxes, owner of (personal) gains, so Allah (zwj) the High Metamorphosed him as Saheyl (a sea creature); and as for Al-Zuhra (a sea creature), so it was a woman by whom Harout and Marout were spellbound, so Allah (azwj) the High Metamorphosed has as Zuhra (a sea creature); and as for the spider, so it was a woman of evil manners, disobedient to her husband having turned her face away from him, so Allah (azwj) the High Metamorphose her as a spider; and as for the hedgehog, so it was a man of evil manners, so Allah (azwj) Metamorphosed him as a hedgehog’.




حدثنا أبو الحسن علي بن عبد الله الاسواري قال: حدثنا مكي بن أحمد ابن سعدويه البرذعي قال: حدثنا أبو زكريا بن يحيى بن عبيد العطار بدمياط قال حدثنا القلانسى قال حدثنا عبد العزيز بن عبد الله الاويسي قال: حدثنا علي بن جعفر عن معتب مولى جعفر عن جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه عن جده عن علي بن أبي طالب عليهم السلام قال: سئل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله عن المسوخ قال: هم ثلاثة عشر. الفيل والدب والخنزير والقرد والجري والضب والوطواط والدعموص والعقرب والعنكبوت والارنب والزهرة وسهيل، فقيل: يا رسول الله ما كان سبب مسخهم؟ قال: أما الفيل فكان رجلا لوطيا لا يدع رطبا ولا يابسا وأما الدب فكان رجلا مخنثا يدعو الرجال إلى نفسه، وأما الخنزير فقوم نصارى سألوا ربهم تعالى ان ينزل المائدة عليهم، فلما نزلت عليهم كانوا أشد كفرا وأشد تكذيبا وأما القردة فقوم اعتدوا في السبت، وأما الجرى فكان ديوثا يدعوا الرجال إلى أهله، وأما الضب فكان اعرابيا يسرق الحاج بمحجنه، وأما الوطواط فكان يسرق الثمار من رؤس النخل، وأما الدعموص فكان نماما يفرق بين الاحبة، وأما العقرب فكان رجلا لذاعا لا يسلم من لسانه أحد، أما العنكبوت فكانت امرأة سحرت زوجها وأما الارنب فكانت امرأة لا تطهر من حيض ولا غيره، وأما سهيل فكان عشارا باليمن، وأما الزهرة فكانت امرأة نصرانية وكانت لبعض ملوك بني اسرائيل وهي التي فتن بها هاروت وماروت وكان اسمها ناهيل والناس يقولون ناهيد. قال محمد بن علي بن الحسين مصنف هذا الكتاب: ان الناس يغلطون في الزهرة وسهيل، ويقولون انهما كوكبان، وليسا كما يقولون ولكنهما دابتان من دواب البحر سميتا بكوكبين، كما سمي الحمل والثور والسرطان والاسد والعقرب والحوت والجدي، وهذه حيوانات سميت على اسماء الكواكب، وكذلك الزهرة وسهيل وانما غلط الناس فيهما دون غيرهما لتعذر مشاهدتهما والنظر اليهما لانهما من البحر المطيف بالدنيا بحيث لا تبلغه سفينة ولا تعمل فيه حيلة، وما كان الله تعالى ليمسخ العصاة أنوارا مضيئة فيبقيهما ما بقيت الارض والسماء، والمسوخ لم تبق اكثر من ثلاثة أيام حتى ماتت، وهذه الحيوانات التي تسمى المسوخ فالمسوخية لها اسم مستعار مجازي، بل هي المسوخ الذي حرم الله تعالى ذكره أكل لحومها. لما فيه من المضار. وقال أبو جعفر الباقر عليه السلام: نهي الله تعالى عن أكله المثلة لكيلا ينتفع بها ولا يستخف بعقوبته.


5. Abu Al Hassan Ali Bin Abdullah Al Aswary narrated to us, from Maky Bin Ahmad Ibn Sa’dawiya Al Bazdai’e, from Abu Zakariya Bin Yahya Bin Ubeyd Al Ataar at Damiyat, from Al Qalanasy, from Abdul Aziz Bin Abdullah Al Asay, from Ali Bin Ja’far, (It has been narrated) from Mo’tab, a slave of Ja’far (asws), from Ja’far (asws) Bin Muhammad (asws), from his (asws) father (asws), from his (asws) grandfather (asws), from Ali (asws) Bin Abu Talib (asws) having said: ‘Rasool-Allah (saww) was asked about the mutants (Metamorphosed ones). He (saww) said: ‘(These are) thirteen the elephant, and the bear, and the pig, and the monkey, and the common basilisk (water lizard), and the (land) lizard, and the bat, and the triops australiensis (sea beetle), and the scorpion, and the spider, and the rabbit, and Al-Zuhra (a sea creature), and Saheyl (a sea creature)’. So it was said, ‘O Rasool-Allah (saww)! What was the cause for their being metamorphosed?’ He (saww) said: ‘As for the elephant, so it was a sodomist man, neither leave anything wet nor dry; and as for the bear, so it was an effeminate man inviting the men unto himself; and as for the pig, so it was a Christian people who had asked their Lord (azwj) to Send down the meal upon them. So when it descended upon them, they were the most intense in being ungrateful and belying it; and as for the money, so it was a people who had exceeded in the Sabbath; and as for the common basilisk (water lizard), so it was a cuckold inviting men to his own wife; and as for the (land) lizard, so it was a Bedouin who used to steal from the pilgrims with his crosier; And as for the bat, so it was a thief stealing the fruits from the top of the palm tree; and as for the triops australiensis (sea beetle), so it was a scandal mongering man causing separation between loved ones; and as for the scorpion, so it was a fault finding man, no one was safe from his tongue; as for the spider, so it was a woman who bewitched her husband; and as for the rabbit, so it was a woman who did not clean herself from menstruation, nor from anything else; and as for Saheyl, so he was a tax collector at Al-Yemen; And as for Al-Zuhra, so it was a Christian woman, and she was for one of the kings of the Chidren of Israel, and she was the one by which Harout and Marout were spellbound by, and her name was Naheel, and the people are calling her Naheed’. Muhammad Bin Ali Bin Al-Husayn the author of this book says, ‘The people are making the error with regards to Al-Zuhra and Saheyl, and they are saying that both of these are stars, and it is not as they are saying it to be. But, these two are two animals from the animals of the sea, named with the two stars, just as Al-Hamal (Aries the ram), and Al-Sowr (Taurus the bull), and Al-Sirtaan (Cancer), and Al-Asad (Leo the lion) , and Al-Aqrab (Scorpio scorpion), and Al-Hout (pisces fish), and A- Jadiy (Capricorn goat) have been named; and these are animals who have been named upon the names of the stars; and similar to that is Al-Zuhra, and Saheyl. But rather the people are wrong with regards to these two besides the others due to the excuse of not being able to witness these from and looking at them, because these two are from the sea, shaded from the world, with where neither a ship has reached, nor has a stratagem being worked upon them. And it was not for Allah (azwj) the High that He (azwj) would Metamorphose the disobedience as rays of light illuminating, so that they would be remaining for as long was the earth and the sky remain, and the mutants did not remain more than three days until they died. And these are animals which are named as the mutants. Thus the mutants have for them a name which is a pseudonym, figurative. But these are the mutants which Allah (azwj), Elevated is His (azwj) Mention, has Forbidden for its flesh to be eaten, due to what is therein from the harm’. And Abu Ja’far Al-Baqir (asws) said: ‘Allah (azwj) the High has Forbidden from eating the resemblances (of the mutants) lest it be underestimated by, and His (azwj) Punishment be belittled’.