220. Reason for the Prohibition of (eating) predatory birds and the wild animals

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حدثنا محمد بن الحسن رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار عن محمد بن الحسين بن أبي الخطاب عن محمد بن اسماعيل بن بزيع عن محمد بن عذافر عن بعض رجاله عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: قلت له لم حرم الله عزوجل الخمر والميتة والدم ولحم الخنزير؟ فقال: ان الله تبارك وتعالى لم يحرم ذلك على عباده وأحل لهم ما سوى ذلك من رغبة فيما أحل لهم ولا زهد فيما حرمه عليهم، ولكنه تعالى خلق الخلق فعلم ما يقوم به أبدانهم وما يصلحهم فاحله لهم وأباحه وعلم ما يضرهم فنهاهم عنه وحرمه عليهم ثم أحله للمضطر في الوقت الذي لا يقوم بدنه إلا به فأمره أن ينال منه بقدر البلغة لا غير ذلك ثم قال: أما الميتة فانه لم ينل أحد منها إلا لضعف بدنه أو وهنت قوته وانقطع نسله ولا يموت آكل الميتة إلا فجأة وأما الدم فانه يورث آكله الماء الاصفر، ويورث القلب وقساوة القلب وقلة الرأفة والرحمة حتى لا يؤمن على حميمه ولا يؤمن على من صحبه، وأما لحم الخنزير فان الله تعالى مسخ قوما في صور شتى مثل الخنزير والقرد والدب، ثم نهى عن أكل المثلة لكيما ينتفع بها ولا يستخف بعقوبته، وأما الخمر فانه حرمها لفعلها وفسادها ثم قال: ان مدمن الخمر كعباد الوثن وتورثه الارتعاش وتهدم مروته وتحمله على ان يجسر على المحارم من سفك الدماء وركوب الزنا حتى لا يؤمن إذا سكران يثب على حرمه وهو لا يعقل ذلك، والخمر لن تزيد شاربها إلا كل شر.


1. Muhammad Bin Al Hassan narrated to us, from Muhammad Bin Al Hassan Al Saffar, from Muhammad Bin Al Husayn Bin Abu Al Khatab, from Muhammad Bin Ismail Bin baize, from Muhammad Bin Azafar, from one of his men, (It has been narrated) from Abu Ja’far (a.s.), said, ‘I said to him (a.s.), ‘Why did Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic Prohibit the wine, and the dead, and the blood, and flesh of the swine?’ So he (a.s.) said: ‘Allah (azwj) Blessed and High did not Prohibit that upon His (azwj) servants and Permitted for them what is besides that from to Incline them towards what is Permissible for them, nor for them to abstain regarding what is Prohibited unto them. But, He (azwj), the Exalted, Created the creatures so He (azwj) Knows what their bodies would be straightened with and what is correct for them, so He (azwj) Permitted it for them and allowed it; and He (azwj) Knows what is harmful for them, so Prevent it from them, and Prohibited it unto them. Then, He (azwj) Permitted it for the desperate during the time which his body would not be able to stand except by it, so He (azwj) Commanded it that he can take from it in a measure of the necessity, not other than that’. Then he (a.s.) said: ‘As for the dead, so no one would take from it except that it would weaken his body, or lessen his strength, and cut-off his offspring; and the eater of the dead would not be dying except suddenly. And as for the blood, so its consumer inherits the yellow water, and inherit the heard diseases and harshness of the heart, and be of little kindness and mercy, to the extent that his intimate one would not be secure from him, nor would the one who accompanies him would be safe from him. And as for the flesh of the swine, so Allah (azwj) the High Metamorphosed a people to be in the image like the pigs, and the monkeys, and the bears. Then He (azwj) Prohibited from eating the mutilated ones so as not to underestimate His (azwj) Punishment. And as for the wine, so He (azwj) Prohibited it due to its workings and its corruption’. Then he (a.s.) said: ‘The one habitual of the wine is like the worshipper of the idols, and he would inherit the trembling, and it would demolish his manhood, and carry him upon the audacity of committing the Prohibition from the shedding of the blood, and indulging in adultery, to the extent when he is drunk, it is not safe that he might leap upon his female family members, and he would not have the intellect for that. And the wine, it never increases its drinking one except for every evil’.




حدثنا أبي رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى وابراهيم بن هاشم جميعا عن محمد بن اسماعيل عن محمد بن عذافر عن أبيه عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام سواء.


2. My father narrated to us, from Sa’ad Bin Abdullah, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Isa, and Ibrahim Bin Hashim both together, from Muhammad Bin Ismail, from Muhammad Bin Azafar, from his father, (It has been narrated) from Abu Ja’far (a.s.), same’.




حدثنا أبي رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي القاسم ماجيلويه عن محمد بن علي الكوفي عن عبد الرحمن بن سالم عن المفضل بن عمر قال: قلت لابي عبد الله (ع) أخبرني لم حرم الله تعالى لحم الخنزير؟ قال: ان الله تبارك وتعالى مسخ قوما في صور شتى مثل الخنزير والقرد والدب، ثم نهى عن أكل المثلة لكيلا ينتفع بها ولا يستخف بعقوبته.


3. My father narrated to us, from Muhammad Bin Abu Al Qasim Majaylawiya, from Muhammad Bin Ali Al Kufy, from Abdul Rahman Bin Salim, from Al Mufazzal Bin Umar who said, ‘I said to Abu Abdullah (a.s.), ‘Inform me, why did Allah (azwj) the High Prohibit the flesh of the swine?’ He (a.s.) said: ‘Allah (azwj) Blessed and High metamorphosed a people in the image of a type similar to the pigs, and the monkeys, and the bears. Then He (azwj) Prohibited from eating the mutilated ones so as not to underestimate His (azwj) Punishment.




حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي عن محمد بن اسماعيل البرمكي عن علي بن العباس قال: حدثنا القاسم ابن الربيع الصحاف عن محمد بن سنان ان الرضا كتب إليه فيما كتب من جواب مسائله حرم الخنزير لانه مشوه جعله الله تعالى عظة للخلق وعبرة وتخويفا ودليلا على ما مسخ على خلقته ولان غذاؤه أقذر الاقذار مع علل كثيرة وكذلك حرم القرد لانه مسح مثل الخنزير، جعل عظة وعبرة للخلق ودليلا على ما مسخ على خلقته وصورته وجعل فيه شبه من الانسان ليدل على انه من الخلق المغضوب عليهم. وكتب الرضا (ع) إلى محمد بن سنان فيما كتب إليه من جواب مسائله حرمت الميتة لما فيها من فساد الابدان والافة ولما أراد الله تعالى أن يجعل التسمية سببا للتحليل وفرقا بين الحلال والحرام، وحرم الله تعالى الدم كتحريم الميتة لما فيه من فساد الابدان ولانه يورث الماء الاصفر يبخر الفم وينتن الريح ويسيئ الخلق ويورث القسوة للقلب وقلة الرأفة والرحمة لا يؤمن ان يقتل ولده ووالده وصاحبه، وحرم الطحال لما فيه من الدم، ولان علته وعلة الدم والميتة واحدة لانه يجري مجريها في الفساد.


4. Ali Bin Ahmad narrated to us, from Muhammad Bin Abu Abdullah Al Kufy, from Muhammad Bin Ismail Al Barmakky, from Ali Bin Al Abbas, from Al Qasim Ibn Al Rabie Al Sahaf, (It has been narrated) from Muhammad Bin Sinan that Al-Ridha (a.s.) wrote to him in answer to what he had asked him: ‘The swine is Forbidden because it has been transformed. Allah (azwj) the High as a referent for the people, and as a lesson, and as an intimidation, and as an evidence upon what metamorphosis occurred upon His (azwj) creatures, and because of its food is the filthiest of the filth, along with many reasons. And similar to that, He (azwj) Forbade the monkey because its touch is like the pig, Making it as a referent, and as a lesson for the people, and as an evidence upon what metamorphosis has occurred upon His (azwj) creatures and its faces, and made therein a resemblance from the human beings in order for it to evidence that it is from the people, upon whom was the Wrath (of Allah (azwj))’. And Al-Ridha (a.s.) wrote to Muhammad Bin Sinan in answer to what he had written to ask him (a.s.): ‘The dead have been Forbidden due to what is therein from the spoilage of the bodies and the health, and due to what Allah (azwj) the High Intended the Naming (Bismillah) as a cause for the Permissibility and a criterion between the Permissible and the Prohibited. And Allah (azwj) the High Prohibited the blood like the Prohibition of the dead due to that is therein from the spoilage of the bodies, and because it inherits the yellow water, and vapour of the mouth, and stinking wind, and abusive manners, and it inherits the harshness of the heart, and the scarcity of the kindness and the mercy. It is not safe if he were to kill his children, or his parents, and his companion. And the spleen is Prohibited due to what is therein from the blood, and because its reason, and the reason for the blood, and the dead, is one; because it flows the (same) flowing in the mischief’.




حدثنا محمد بن علي ما جيلويه رضي الله عنه عن عمه محمد بن أبي القاسم عن أحمد بن أبي عبد الله البرقي عن محمد بن أسلم الجبلي عن الحسين بن خالد قال: سألت ابا الحسن (ع) هل يحل أكل لحم الفيل؟ فقال: لا فقلت: لم؟ قال: لانه مثله وقد حرم الله تعالى لحوم الامساخ ولحوم ما مثل به في صورتها.


5. Muhammad Bin Ali Majaylawiya narrated to us, from his uncle Muhammad Bin Abu Al Qasim, from Ahmad Bin Abu Abdullah Al Barqy, from Muhammad Bin Aslam Al Jabaly, from Al Husayn Bin Khalid who said, ‘I asked Abu Al-Hassan (a.s.), ‘Is it Permissible to eat the flesh of the elephant?’ So he (a.s.) said: ‘No’. I said, ‘Why?’ he (a.s.) said: ‘Because it has been transformed, and Allah (azwj) the High has Forbidden the flesh of the metamorphosed ones, and flesh of what resembles it in its image’.