76. The reason for the creation of the organs and the faculties in the human being

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حدثنا أبو العباس محمد بن إبراهيم بن اسحاق الطالقاني رضى الله عنه قال حدثنا أبو سعيد الحسن بن علي العدوي قال حدثنا عباد بن صهيب بن عباد ابن صهيب عن أبيه، عن جده عن الربيع صاحب المنصور قال حضر أبو عبد الله عليه السلام مجلس المنصور يوما وعنده رجل من الهند يقرء كتب الطب فجعل أبو عبد الله عليه السلام ينصت لقراءته فلما فرغ الهندي قال له يا أبا عبد الله أتريد مما معي شيئا قال لا فإن معي ما هو خير مما معك قال وما هو؟ قال اداوي الحار بالبارد والبارد بالحار والرطب باليابس واليابس بالرطب وأرد الامر كله إلى الله عزوجل واستعمل ماقاله رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله واعلم ان المعدة بيت الداء وان الحمية هي الدواء واعود البدن ما اعتاد فقال الهندي. وهل الطب إلا هذا؟ فقال الصادق عليه السلام أفتراني من كتب الطب اخذت قال نعم قال لا والله ما أخذت إلا عن الله سبحانه فاخبرني انا أعلم بالطب أم أنت؟ قال الهندي لابل انا قال الصادق عليه فاسألك شيئا قال سل قال اخبرني يا هندي لم كان في الرأس شئون؟ قال لا أعلم، قال فلم جعل الشعر عليه من فوق؟ قال لا أعلم، قال فلم خلت الجبهة من الشعر؟ قال لا أعلم، قال فلم كان لها تخطيط وأسارير؟ قال لا أعلم، قال فلم كان الحاجبان من فوق العينين؟ قال لا أعلم، قال فلم جعل العينان كاللوزتين؟ قال لا أعلم قال فلم جعل الانف فيما بينهما؟ قال لا أعلم، قال فلم كانت ثقب الانف في أسفله؟ قال لا أعلم، قال فلم جعلت الشفة والشارب من فوق الفم؟ قال لا أعلم، قال فلم احتد السن وعرض الضرس وطال الناب؟ قال لا أعلم، قال فلم جعلت اللحية للرجال؟ قال لا أعلم، قال فلم خلت الكفان من الشعر؟ قال لا أعلم، قال فلم خلا الظفر والشعر من الحياة؟ قال لا أعلم. قال فلم كان القلب كحب الصنوبرة قال لاأعلم، قال فلم كان الرئة قطعتين وجعل حركتها في موضعها؟ قال لا أعلم قال فلم كانت الكبد حدباء؟ قال لا أعلم، قال فلم كانت الكلية كحب اللوبياء قال لا أعلم قال فلم جعل طي الركبة إلى الخلف؟ قال لا أعلم، قال فلم تخصرت القدم؟ قال لا أعلم فقال الصادق " ع ": لكني أعلم قال فاجب، فقال الصادق " ع " كان في الرأس شئون لان المجوف إذا كان بلا فصل أسرع إليه الصداع فإذا دخل ذا فصول كان الصداع منه أبعد وجعل الشعر من فوقه ليوصل بوصوله الادهان إلى الدماغ ويخرج باطرافه البخار منه ويرد عنه الحر والبرد الواردين عليه وخلت الجبهة من الشعر لانها مصب النور إلى العينين وجعل فيها التخطيط والاسارير ليجلس العرق الوارد من الرأس عن العين قدر ما يمتطيه الانسان عن نفسه كالانهار في الارض التي تحبس المياه وجعل الحاجبان من فوق العينين ليوردا عليهما من النور قدر الكفاية، الا ترى يا هندي ان من غلبه النور جعل يده على عينيه ليرد عليهما قدر كفايتهما منه وجعل الانف فيما بينهما ليقسم النور قسمين إلى كل عين سواء وكانت العين كاللوزة ليجرى فيها الميل بالدواء ويخرج منها الداء ولو كانت مربعة أو مدورة ما جرى فيها الميل وما وصل إليها دواء ولا خرج منها داء وجعل ثقب الانف في اسفله لينزل منه الادواء المنحدرة من الدماغ وتصعد فيه الروائح إلى المشام ولو كان في أعلاه لما أنزل داء ولا وجد رائحة وجعل الشارب والشفة فوق الفم ليحبس ما ينزل من الدماغ عن الفم لئلا يتنغص على الانسان طعامه وشرابه فيميطه عن نفسه وجعلت اللحية للرجال ليستغني بها عن الكشف في المنظر ويعلم بها الذكر من الانثى وجعل السن حادا لان به يقع العض وجعل الضرس عريضا لان به يقع الطحن والمضغ وكان الناب طويلا ليشتد الاضراس والاسنان كالاسطوانة في البناء وخلا الكفان من الشعر لان بهما يقع اللمس فلو كان بهما شعر ما درى الانسان ما يقابله ويلمسه وخلا الشعر والظفر من الحياة لان طولهما وسخ يقبح وقصهما حسن فلو كان فيهما حياة لالم الانسان لقصهما وكان القلب كحب الصنوبر لانه منكس فجعل رأسه رقيقا ليدخل في الرية فيتروح عنه ببردها لئلا يشيط الدماغ بحره وجعلت الرئة قطعتين ليدخل في مضاغطها فتروح عنه بحركتها وكانت الكبد حدباء لتثقل المعدة وتقع جميعها عليها فتعصرها فيخرج ما فيها من البخار وجعلت الكلية كحب اللوبياء لان عليها مصب المنى نقطة بعد نقطة فلو كانت مربعة أو مدورة لاحتسبت النقطة الاولى الثانية فلا يلتذ بخروجها الحي إذا المنى ينزل من فقار الظهر إلى الكلية فهى كالدودة تنقبض وتنسبط ترميه أولا فأولا إلى المثانة كالبندقة من القوس وجعل طي الركبة إلى خلف، لان الانسان يمشي إلى مابين يديه فتعتدل الحركات، ولولا ذلك لسقط في المشي وجعلت القدم متخصرة، لان الشئ إذا وقع على الارض جميعه ثقل ثقل حجر الرحا، وإذا كان على طرفه دفعه الصبي، وإذا وقع على وجهه صعب نقله على الرجل فقال الهندي من أين لك هذا العلم؟ فقال " ع ": أخذته عن آبائى عليهم السلام، عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله عن جبرئيل عليه السلام عن رب العالمين جل جلاله الذي خلق الاجساد والارواح. فقال الهندي صدقت وأنا أشهد أن لا إله ألا الله وان محمدا رسول الله وعبده، وانك أعلم أهل زمانك.


1. Abu Al Abbas Muhammad Bin Ibrahim Bin Is’haq Al Talaqany narrated to us, from Abu Saeed Al Hassan Bin Ali Al Adawy, from Abaad Bin Saheyb Bin Abaad Ibn Saheyb, from his father, from his grandfather, from Al Rabi’e, a companion Al Mansour who said, ‘Abu Abdullah (a.s.) was present in the gathering of Al-Mansour, and in his presence was a man from India reading books of medicine. So Abu Abdullah (a.s.) listened to his recitation. So when the Indian was free, he said to him (a.s.), ‘O Abu Abdullah (a.s.)! Would you like anything from what is with me?’ He (a.s.) said: ‘No, for with me (a.s.) is what is better than what is with you’. He said, ‘And what is it?’ He (a.s.) said: ‘I (a.s.) cure the heat with the cold, and the cold with the heat, and the wet with the dry, and the dry with the wet, and I (a.s.) refer the matter, all of it, to Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic, and I (a.s.) utilise what Rasool-Allah (saww) has said, and know that the stomach is a house of illnesses, and that the diet is in itself a medication, and I (a.s.) return the body to what it is accustomed to’. So the Indian said, ‘And is the medicine other than this?’ So Al-Sadiq (a.s.) said: ‘Is it your view that it is from the books of medicine that I (a.s.) take (this knowledge from)?’ He said, ‘Yes’. He (a.s.) said: ‘No, by Allah (azwj)! I (a.s.) have not taken except from Allah (azwj) the Glorious. So, inform me (a.s.), am I (a.s.) more knowledgeable of the medicine or you?’ The Indian said, ‘No, but I am’. So, Al-Sadiq (a.s.) said: ‘I (a.s.) shall ask you a few things’. He said, ‘Ask’. He (a.s.) said: ‘Inform me (a.s.), O Indian! Why does there happen to be bonding (in between the bones) in the head? He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why has the hair made to be on top of the head?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why is the forehead empty from hair?’ He said, ‘No’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why are there lines and brows on the forehead?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why are there eyelids on top of the eyes?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why are the two eyes like two almonds?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why has the nose to be made in between them?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why are the holes (nostrils) at the bottom of the nose?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why has the lip and the moustached Made to be on top of the mouth?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why are the front teeth pointed, and the molars flat, and the canines long?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why has the beard Made to be for the men?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why are the palms free from hair?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why are the nails and the hair devoid of life?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why was the heart (shaped to be) like the seed of pine?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why was the lung not Made to be in two pieces and its movement is in its place?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why was the liver (made to be) hump-backed?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why was kidney (Made to be shaped) like the seed of the bean?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why do the knees bend towards the back?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So why is the foot sole curved?’ He said, ‘I don’t know’. So Al-Sadiq (a.s.) said: ‘But, I (a.s.) do know’. He said, ‘So answer’. Al-Sadiq (a.s.) said: ‘There is a bonding (of the bones) in the head because of the hollowness. If it was without the bonding (i.e. one piece), the headaches would be quicker to it. So when there is a gap in between (these pieces), the headaches are remote from it. And the hair has been Made to be on top of it so that the oil can easily arrive to the brain from its roots, and the vapour can be released from it and the heat and the cold can be repulsed from it. And the forehead is devoid from the hair because it is an inlet of the Light to the two eyes, and the lines have been Made to be in it so that the flow of the sweat from the head would be diverted away from the eyes in accordance to what the human being sweat upon himself, like the river in the earth which withhold the water. And the two eyelids had been Made to be on top of the two eyes in order to repulse the light from these two in a sufficient measure. Have you not see, O Indian, that the one who is engulfed by the light tends to place his hand upon his eyes in order to repulse from these two in accordance with what is sufficient for these two? And the nose has been Made to be in the middle of these two in order to divide the light into two parts, to each eye equally. And the eye was Made to be like the almonds so that the medicine would flow in it with the needle, and the illness can be extracted from it, and if it was square or rounded, the needle would not flow in it, and the medicine would not have been applied to these, nor an illness to be extracted from it. And the nostril of the nose has been Made to be at its bottom so that the illnesses can come out from it sloping downwards from the brain, and the aromas can ascend into it to the nose, and if it has been at its top, neither would the illnesses have descended nor would he have been able to find the fragrances. And the moustache and the lip has been Made to be at the top of the mouth in order to withhold what descends from the brain (through the nose) into the mouth, so that perhaps it would interfere to the human being with his food and his drink, so he removes it from himself. And the beard has been Made to be for the men so that they would be needless by it from the covering during the beholding, and he would be known by it whether he is a male or a female. And the incisors have been Made to be sharp for by it is the biting, and the Molars have been Made to be flat because by it is the grinding and the chewing, and the canines are lengthy in order to strengthen the molars and the incisors and the teeth can be equalised in their construction (for their workings). And the palms are devoid of hair because the touching, and if there was hair in these two, the human being would not have known what he is facing and what he is touching. And the hair and the nails are devoid of life because their lengthening is dirty and its clipping is beauty, and if there was to be life in them, the human being would undergo pain in clipping these. And the heart is like the seed of the pine because it is inverted, and its head is Made to be thin so that it would enter into the lungs and aerate itself from it by its coldness lest the brain overheats it. And the lungs have been Made to be in two pieces, so that in their pressings, they can aerate (the body) with its movement. And the liver was Made to be hump-backed in order not to over-burden the stomach, and extracts the vapours from it. And the kidneys are bean-shaped because upon it hits the drops of semen, and had it been square or circular, the first drop would withhold the second drop, and he would not feel the pleasure of its exit as the semen descends from the back bone to the kidney. Thus it is like the worm, and it wiggles from its front part to its second part, like the shooting of the arrow from the bow. And the knees are Made to bend towards the back, because the human being walks to what is in front of him, so his movement is equalised, and had it not been for that, he would fall down in his walking. And the feet (sole) is Made to be curved, because the thing, if the whole of it occurs upon the ground, it is heavy, (like) the weight of a millstone. And if was on its side, a child would be able to move it, and if he were to fall upon his face, it would be difficult for the man (to lift it)’. So the Indian said, ‘From where did this knowledge (come) to you (a.s.)?’ So he (a.s.) said: ‘I (a.s.) took it from my (a.s.) forefathers (a.s.), from Rasool-Allah (saww), from Jibraeel (a.s.), from the Lord (azwj) of the Worlds, Mighty is His (azwj) Majesty Who Created the bodies and the spirits’. So the Indian said, ‘You (a.s.) have spoken the truth, and I hereby testify that there is no god except for Allah (azwj) and that Muhammad is Rasool-Allah (azwj) and His (azwj) servant, and that you (a.s.) are the most knowledgeable of your (a.s.) era’.