46. The reason due to which Al-Khizr (as) was named as ‘Khizr’, and the reasons for what angered Musa (as) from the breaking of the ship, and the killing of the boy, and the straightening of the wall

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حدثنا أحمد بن الحسن القطان قال: حدثنا الحسن بن علي السكري قال حدثنا محمد بن زكريا الجوهري البصري قال: حدثنا جعفر بن محمد بن عمارة عن أبيه، عن جعفر بن محمد عليه السلام. انه قال ان الخضر كان نبيا مرسلا بعثه الله تبارك وتعالى إلى قومه: فدعاهم إلى توحيده والاقرار بانبيائه ورسله وكتبه وكانت آيته انه كان لا يجلس على خشبة يابسة، ولا أرض بيضاء إلا أزهرت خضرا وانما سمي خضرا لذلك، وكان إسمه باليا بن ملكان بن عابر بن أرفخشد ابن سام بن نوح عليه السلام وان موسى لما كلمة الله تكليما، وانزل عليه التوراة وكتب له في الالواح من كل شئ موعظة وتفصيلا لكل شئ، وجعل آيته في يده وعصاه، وفي الطوفان والجرد والقمل والضفادع والدم وفلق البحر، وغرق الله عز وجل فرعون وجنوده وعملت البشرية فيه حتى قال في نفسه: ما أرى ان الله عز وجل خلق خلقا أعلم مني، فأوحى الله عز وجل إلى جبرئيل: يا جبرئيل ادرك عبدي موسى قبل ان يهلك، وقل له ان عند ملتقى البحرين رجلا عابدا فاتبعه وتعلم منه، فهبط جبرئيل على موسى بما أمره به ربه عز وجل فعلم موسى ان ذلك لما حدثت به نفسه، فمضى هو وفتاه يوشع بن نون عليه السلام حتى إنتهيا إلى ملتقى البحرين فوجدا هناك الخضر عليه السلا م يعبد الله عز وجل، كما قال عز وجل في كتابه: (فوجدا عبدا من عبادنا آتيناه رحمة من عندنا وعلمناه من لدنا علما) قال موسى: هل اتبعك على ان تعلمني مما علمت رشدا؟ قال له الخضر: انك لن تستطيع معي صبرا لاني وكلت بعلم لا تطيقه ووكلت أنت بعلم لا أطيقه، قال موسى له: بل أستطيع معك صبرا، فقال له الخضر: ان القياس لا مجال له في علم الله وأمره، وكيف تصبر على ما لم تحط به خبرا؟ قال موسى ستجدني ان شاء الله صابرا ولا اعصي لك أمرا، فلما استثنى المشية قبله، قال فإن اتبعتنى فلا تسألني عن شئ حتى احدث لك منه ذكرا، فقال موسى " ع " لك ذلك علي فانطلقا حتى إذا ركبا في السفينة خرقها الخضر " ع " فقال له موسى " ع ": اخرقتها لتغرق أهلها: لقد جئت شيئا أمرا قال: الم أقل لك انك لن تسطيع معي صبرا، قال موسى: لا تواخذنى بما نسيت - أي بما تركت من أمرك، ولا ترهقني من أمري عسرا فانطلقا حتى إذا لقيا غلاما فقتله الخضر عليه السلام فغضب موسى واخذ بتلابيبه وقال له: أقتلت نفسا زكية بغير نفس لقد جئت شيئا نكرا، قال له الخضر ان العقول لا تحكم على أمر الله تعالى ذكره بل أمر الله يحكم عليها، فسلم لما ترى مني واصبر عليه، فقد كنت علمت انك لن تستطيع معي صبرا، قال موسى: ان سألتك عن شئ بعدها فلا تصاحبني قد بلغت من لدنى عذرا، فانطلقا حتى إذا أتيا أهل قرية - وهى الناصرة، واليها تنسب النصارى - واستطعما أهلها فابوا أن يضيفوها، فوجدا فيها جدارا يريد أن ينقض، فوضع الحضر عليه السلام يده عليه فاقامة، فقال له موسى: لو شئت لاتخذت عليه أجرا. قال له الخضر: هذا فراق بينى وبينك، سأنبئنك بتأويل ما لم يستطع عليه صبرا، فقال أما السفينة فكانت لمساكين يعملون في البحر فاردت ان اعيبها، وكان ورائهم ملك يأخذ كل سفينة صالحة غصبا، فاردت بما فعلت ان تبقى لهم ولا يغصبهم الملك عليها، فنسب الانانية في هذا الفعل إلى نفسه لعله ذكر التعييب، لانه أراد أن يعيبها عند الملك إذا شاهدها فلا يغصب المساكين عليها، وأراد الله عز وجل صلاحهم بما أمره به من ذلك، ثم قال: وأما الغلام فكان أبواه مؤمنين، وطلع كافرا، وعلم الله تعالى ذكره ان بقى كفرا أبواه وأفتتنا به وضلا باضلاله إياهما، فأمرني الله تعالى ذكره بقتله وأراد بذلك نقلهم إلى محل كرامته في العاقبة، فاشترك بالانانية بقوله: فخشينا أن يرهقهما طغيانا وكفرا، فاردنا ان يبدلهما ربهما خيرا منه زكاة وأقرب رحما وإنما اشترك في الانانية لانه خشى والله لا يخشى لانه لا يفوته شئ ولا يمتنع عليه احد أراده، وانما خشى الخضر، من ان يحال بينه وبين ما أمر فيه فلا يدرك ثواب الامضاء فيه، ووقع في نفسه ان الله تعالى ذكره جعله سببا لرحمة أبوى الغلام فعمل فيه وسط الامر من البشريه مثل ما كان عمل في موسي عليه السلام لانه صار في الوقت مخبرا، وكليم الله موسى عليه السلام مخبرا ولم يكن ذلك باستحقاق للخضر عليه السلام للرتبة على موسى عليه السلام وهو أفضل من الخضر بل كان لاستحقاق موسى لتبيين، ثم قال: وأما الجدار فكان لغلاميين يتيمين في المدينة، وكان تحته كنز لهما، وكان أبوهما صالحا، ولم يكن ذلك كنز بذهب ولا فضة، ولكن كان لوحا من ذهب فيه مكتوب: عجب لمن ايقن بالموت كيف يفرح؟! عجب لمن أيقن بالقدر كيف يحزن؟! عجب لمن أيقن ان البعث حق كيف يظلم؟! عجب لمن يرى الدنيا وتصرف أهلها حالا بعد حال كيف يطمئن إليها؟! وكان أبوهما صالحا كان بينهما وبين هذا الاب الصالح سبعون أبا فحفظهما الله بصلاحه، ثم قال: فاراد ربك ان ييلغا اشدهما ويستخرجا كنزهما، فتبرأ من الانانية في آخر القصص ونسب الارادة كلها إلى الله تعالى ذكره في ذلك لانه لم يكن بقى شئ مما فعله فيخبر به بعد ويصير موسى عليه السلام به مخبراو مصغيا الى كلامه تابعا له فتجرد من الانانية والارادة تجرد العبد المخلص، ثم صار متنصلا مما أتاه من نسبه الانانية في أول القصة، ومن ادعاء الاشتراك في ثانى القصة، فقال: رحمة من ربك وما فعلته عن أمرى، ذلك تأويل ما لم تستطع عليه صبرا، ثم قال جعفر بن محمد " ع " ان أمر الله تعالى ذكره لا يحمل على المقاييس ومن حمل امر الله على المقاييس هلك واهلك ان أول معصية ظهرت الانانية عن إبليس اللعين حين أمر الله تعالى ذكره ملائكته بالسجود لآدم، فسجدوا وأبى إبليس اللعين ان يسجد، فقال عز وجل ما منعك ألا تسجد إذ أمرتك، قال: انا خير منه، خلقتني من نار وخلقته من طين، فكان أول كفرة قوله: انا خير منه، ثم قياسه بقوله: خلقتني من نار وخلقته من طين، فطرده الله عز وجل عن جواره، ولعنه وسماه رجيما واقسم بعزته لا يقيس احد في دينه إلا قرنه مع عدوه إبليس في أسفل درك من النار.


1. Ahmad Bin Al Hassan Al Qatan narrated to us, from Al Hassan Bin Ali Al Sakry, from Muhammad Bin Zakariyya Al Jowhary Al Basry, from Ja’far Bin Muhammad Bin Amaara, from his father, (It has been narrated) from Ja’far (asws) Bin Muhammad (asws) having said: ‘Al-Khizr (as) was a Mursil Prophet (as). Allah (azwj) Blessed and High Sent him (as) to his (as) people, so he (as) called them to His (azwj) Oneness and the acceptance of His (azwj) Prophets (as), and His (azwj) Rasools (as), and His (azwj) Books. And his (as) miracle was that he (as) neither used to sit upon dry wood, nor white ground (unproductive land), except that it blossomed as green. But rather, he (as) was named as ‘Khizr’ (green) due to that, and that his (as) name was Baliya Bin Malkan Bin Aabir Bin Ar Fakhshad Ibn Saam Bin Noah (as). And when Allah (azwj) Spoke to Musa (as) with a Speech, and Revealed the Torah unto him (as), and Prescribed for him (as) in the Tablets with everything, Advice and detail of everything, and Made a miracle to be in his (as) hand and his (as) staff, and in the flood, and the locusts, and the lice, and the frogs, and the blood, and the splitting of the sea. And Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic Drowned Pharaoh (la) and his (la) army, and he (as) performed these among the people, until he (as) thought to himself (as): ‘I (as) have not seen a creature whom Allah (azwj) has Created, to be more knowledgeable than me (as)’. So, Allah (azwj) Revealed unto Jibraeel (as): “O Jibraeel (as)! Go to My (azwj) servant Musa (as) before he (as) gets destroyed, and say to him (as) that at the meeting of the two seas there is a worshipping man, so follow him (as) and learn from him (as)”. So Jibraeel (as) descended unto Musa (as) with what his (as) Lord (azwj) Mighty and Majestic had been Commanded with. So Musa (as) knew that it was due to what he (as) had thought to himself (as). So he (as) and his (as) attendant Yoshua Bin Noon (as) went unto they (as) ended up at the meeting of the two seas. So they found over there Al-Khizr (as) worshipping Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic just as Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic has Said in His (azwj) Book [18:65] Then they found a servant from Our servants whom We had Granted Mercy from Us and whom We had Taught knowledge from Ourselves. [18:66] Musa said to him: Shall I follow you on condition that you should teach me right Knowledge from what you have been Taught? [18:67] He said: Surely you cannot have patience with me because I (as) have been Allocated a Knowledge which you (as) do not have the strength (to bear), and you (as) have been Allocated with a Knowledge which I (as) cannot bear’. Musa (as) said to him (as): ‘But, I (as) will be able to be patient with you (as)’. So Al-Khizr said: ‘There is no scope for analogy in the Knowledge of Allah (azwj) and His (azwj) Commandments, [18:68] And how can you have patience upon that of which you have not got any news of? [18:69] He said: If Allah so desires it, you will find me patient and I shall not disobey you in any matter. So when Allah (azwj)’s Desire was made to be an exclusion, he (as) walked with him (as). [18:70] He said: If you would follow me, so you will not question me about anything until I myself narrate to you with a mention. So Musa (as) said: ‘So that is (binding) upon me (as)’. So they (as) went until when they rod in the ship, so Al-Khizr (as) made a hole in it. So Musa (as) said to him (as) [18:71] Have you made a hole in it to drown its inmates? Certainly you have done a grievous thing So Al-Khizr (as) said to him (as) [18:72] Did I not say that you will not be able to have patience with me? Musa (as) said: [18:73] Do not hold me with what I forgot, and do not constrain me to a difficult thing in my affair’. So they (as) went until when they met a young boy. So Al-Khizr (as) killed him. So Musa (as) got angry and grabbed his (as) robe and said to him (as): [18:74] Have you slayed an innocent person who has slayed no one? Certainly you have done an evil thing So Al-Khizr (as) said: [18:75] He said: Did I not say to you that you will not be able to have patience with me? Musa (as) [18:76] He said: If I ask you about anything after this, do not keep me in your company; indeed you shall have (then) found an excuse in my case’. [18:77] So they went on until when they came to the people of a town and it is Nazareth, and the Christians had been established there and would feed its people and would not feed but they refused to entertain them as guests. So they (as) found a wall therein about to fall down, so Al-Khizr (as) placed his (as) hands upon it and straightened it. So Musa (as) said to him (as): ‘If you had so desired to, you could have taken a recompense for it’. So Al-Khizr (as) said to him (as) [18:78] This shall be separation between me and you; now I will inform you of the explanation of what with you did not have patience upon [18:79] As for the boat, it belonged to (some) poor men who worked on the river and I intended that I should damage it, as there was behind them a king who seized every good boat by force. Thus, I (as) intended with what I (as) did that it whould remain for them, and the king would not usurp it from them’. So, he (as) established the selflessness to himself (as) when he (as) mentioned the damaging – ‘because I (as) intended that I (as) should damage it in the presence of the king, when he witnessed it, so he would not usurp it from the poor people. And Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic Intended to Correct their affairs with what He (azwj) Commanded with from that. Then he (as) said: ‘[18:80] And as for the boy, his parents were Believers, and he was a disbeliever, and Allah (azwj), Elevated is His (azwj) Mention Knew that if he were to remain, he would turn his parents into disbelievers, and stray them both with a straying. Therefore, Allah (azwj), Elevated is His (azwj) Mentioned, Commanded me (as) to kill him, and I (as) intended with that to transfer them both to a place of prestige in the Hereafter’. So he (as) included himself (as) by his (as) words: ‘[18:80] and we feared lest he should make disobedience and ingratitude to come upon them [18:81] So we desired that their Lord might Give them in his place one better than him in purity and nearer to having compassion. But rather, he (as) included himself (as) in the act, because he (as) feared and Allah (azwj) does not Fear, because nothing is missed by Him (azwj) not is anything Prevented from His (azwj) Will. But rather, Al-Khizr (as) (was the one who) feared, what might transpire between himself (as) and regarding what he (as) had been Commanded with, and that he (as) would not see the Rewards regarding it. And it occurred in himself (as) that Allah (azwj), Elevated is His (azwj) mentioned, Made him (as) to be a cause for the Mercy of the parents of the boy. Thus, he (as) worked the middle course of the matter from the humanity (point of view), similar to what was the deed with regards to Musa (as), because he (as) became an informed one during that time, and the speaker with Allah (azwj) was Musa (as), an informed one, and that does not make Al-Khizr (as) to be more deserving in rank over Musa (as), and he (as) is higher than Al-Khizr (as), but he (as) was more deserving (in rank) for the clarification (of the three issues)’. [18:82] And as for the wall, it belonged to two orphan boys in the city, and there was beneath it a treasure belonging to them, and their father was a righteous man. And that was neither a treasure of gold, nor silver, but it was a Tablet of gold in which was inscribed: ‘Strange, how the one who is convinced of the death, how he can be happy? Strange, how the one who is convinced of the Pre-destination how he can grieve? Strange, how the one who is convinced of the resurrection being the Truth, how he can be unjust? Strange, how the one who sees the world and the changing of the conditions of its people from a state, after a state, how he can rely upon these?’ [18:82] and their father was a righteous man – There was in between the two of them and this righteous father, seventy forefathers, therefore Allah (azwj) had Protected (the treasure) for the two of them due to his righteousness. Then he (as) (Al-Khizr (as)) so your Lord Intended that they should attain their maturity and take out their treasure. So he (as) disassociated himself (as) at the end of the story, and linked the whole of the intention to Allah (azwj), Elevated is His (azwj) Mention, with regards to that, because there did not remain anything from what he (as) had done for him (as) to inform about it afterwards. And Musa (as) came to be informed with it, listening to his (as) subordinate, following him (as), so that he (as) would empty himself (as) from the selfishness and become a sincere servant. Then he (as) (Al-Khizr (as)) repudiated from what came to him (as) from linking himself (as) in the first part of the story ([18:79] I intended that I should damage it), and from claiming of the association during the second story ([18:81] So we desired). So he (as) said: [18:82] a Mercy from your Lord, and I did not do it of my own accord. That is the explanation of what you did not have patience upon’. Then Ja’far (asws) Bin Muhammad (asws) said: ‘The Commands of Allah (azwj) cannot be borne upon the analogies, and the one who carries the Commands of Allah (azwj) upon the analogies is destroyed and will (cause others to be) destroyed. The first disobedience which manifested the selfishness was from Iblees (as) the Accursed, when Allah (azwj) Commanded the Angels with the Prostration to Adam (as), so they Prostrated, and Iblees (la) the Accursed refused to Prostrate. So the Mighty and Majestic Said: “[7:12] He Said: What prevented you so that you did not prostrate when I Commanded you? He said: I am better than he is: You have Created me of fire, while him You created of clay. So the first disbelief were his (la) words I am better than he is. Then he (la) analogized by his (la) words You have Created me of fire, while him You created of clay. Therefore Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic Expelled him (la) from His (azwj) Vicinity, and Cursed him (la), and Named him (la) as a ‘Pelted One’, and Swore by His (azwj) Honour that no one would analogise in His (azwj) Religion except that He (azwj) would Pair him with Iblees (la) in the lowest level in the Fire’.