154. The reason due to which Al-Reza (asws) accepted the mandate of the reign from Al-Mamoun

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حدثنا الحسين بن ابراهيم بن ناتانة قال: حدثنا علي بن ابراهيم، عن ابيه ابراهيم بن هاشم، عن ابى الصلت الهروي قال: ان المأمون قال للرضا علي بن موسى " ع " يابن رسول الله قد عرفت فضلك وعلمك وزهدك وورعك وعبادتك وأراك أحق بالخلافة منى، فقال الرضا " ع " بالعبودية لله عز وجل أفتخر، وبالزهد في الدنيا أرجو النجاة من شر الدنيا، وبالورع عن المحارم أرجو الفوز بالمغانم وبالتواضع في الدنيا أرجو الرفعة عند الله تعالى، فقال له المأمون: انى قد رأيت أن أعزك نفسي عن الخلافة واجعلها لك وأبايعك! فقال له الرضا ان كانت هذه الخلافة لك وجعلها الله لك فلا يجوز لك أن تخلع لباسا ألبسكه الله وتجعله لغيرك وان كانت الخلافة ليست لك فلا يجوز لك تجعل لي ما ليس لك فقال له المأمون يابن رسول الله لابد لك من قبول هذا الامر فقال لست أفعل ذلك طايعا ابدا فما زال يجهد به اياما حتى يئس من قبوله له فان لم تقبل الخلافة ولم تحب مبايعتي لك فكن ولى عهدي لتكون لك الخلافة بعدى فقال الرضا " ع " والله لقد حدثنى ابى عن آبائه عن أمير المؤمنين عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله انى اخرج من الدنيا قبلك مقتولا بالسم مظلوما تبكى على ملائكة السماء وملائكة الارض وادفن في أرض غربة إلى جنب هارون الرشيد فبكى المأمون ثم قال له يابن رسول الله ومن الذي يقتلك أو يقدر على الاساءة اليك وانا حى قال الرضا " ع " اما انى لو اشاء ان أقول من الذي يقتلى لقلت فقال المأمون يابن رسول الله انما تريد بقولك هذا التخفيف عن نفسك ودفع هذا الامر عنك ليقول الناس انك زاهد في الدنيا فقال الرضا " ع " والله ما كذبت منذ خلقني ربى تعالى وما زهدت في الدنيا للدنيا وانى لا علم ما تريد قال المأمون وما أريد قال الامان على الصدق قال لك الامان قال تريد بذلك ان يقول الناس ان علي بن موسى الرضا لم يزهد في الدنيا بل زهدت الدنيا فيه الا ترون كيف قبل ولاية العهد طمعا في الخلافة فغضب المأمون ثم قال انك تتلقاني ابدا بما اكرهه وقد آمنت سطوتي فبالله أقسم لئن قبلت ولاية العهد وإلا أجبرتك على ذلك فان فعلت وإلا ضربت عنقك فقال الرضا " ع " قد نهانى الله عزوجل ان القى بيدى إلى التهلكة فان كان الامر على هذا فافعل مابدا لك وانا أقبل ذلك على ان لا أولى احدا ولا أعزل احدا ولا انقض رسما ولا سنة واكون في الامر بعيدا مشيرا فرضى منه بذلك وجعله ولى عهده على كراهة منه " ع " لذلك.


1. Al Husayn Bin Ibrahim Bin Natana narrated to us, from Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father Ibrahim Bin Hashim, from Abu Al Salt Al Harawy who said, ‘Al-Mamoun said to Al-Reza Ali (a.s.) Bin Musa (a.s.), ‘O son of Rasool-Allah (saww)! I do recognise your (a.s.) merits, and your (a.s.) Knowledge, and your (a.s.) asceticism (abstaining from world desires), and your (a.s.) piety, and your (a.s.) worship, and I see you (a.s.) as being more rightful for the Caliphate than I am’. So Al-Ridha (a.s.) said: ‘And as for the worship for the Sake of Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic, I (a.s.) take pride in it; and with the asceticism in the world, I (a.s.) hope to be saved from the evil of the world; and with the (observance of) piety from the Prohibitions I (a.s.) hope for the success; and with the modesty in the world I (a.s.) hope for the elevation in the Presence of Allah (azwj) the High’. So Al-Mamoun said to him (a.s.), ‘It is my view that I cherish you (a.s.) myself about the Caliphate and make it to be for you (a.s.) and pledge the allegiance to you!’ So Al-Ridha (a.s.) said: ‘If this Caliphate was for you, and Allah (azwj) had Made it to be for you, so then there is no permission for you that you should take off its clothes which Allah (azwj) has Clothed you with, and make it to be for someone else. However, if this Caliphate was not for you, then there is no permission for you that you should make it to be for me (a.s.) what was not for you (in the first place)’. So Al-Mamoun said to him (a.s.), ‘O son (a.s.) of Rasool-Allah (saww)! It is inevitable for you (a.s.) to accept this command’. So he (a.s.) said: ‘I (a.s.) will not be doing that willingly, ever’. So he (a.s.) did not cease to argue against it for days, until he despaired from his (a.s.) acceptance of it. He said, ‘So if you (a.s.) do not accept the Caliphate, and do not like the pledging of my allegiance to you (a.s.), so let the mandate of my reign of the Caliphate come to be for you (a.s.), after me’. So Al-Ridha (a.s.) said: ‘By Allah (azwj)! My (a.s.) father (a.s.) has narrated to me (a.s.), from his (a.s.) forefathers (a.s.), from Amir Al-Momineen (a.s.), from Rasool-Allah (saww), that I (a.s.) would be exiting from the world before you, having been murdered by the poison, as an oppressed one. The Angels of the sky and the Angels of the earth would weep over me (a.s.), and I (a.s.) would be buried in a foreign land, by the side of Haroun Al-Rashid’. So Al-Mamoun wept, then said to him (a.s.), ‘O son (a.s.) of Rasool-Allah (saww)! And who is the one who would be killing you, or be able to do some evil to you (a.s.) and I am still alive?’ Al-Ridha (a.s.) said: ‘But, if I (a.s.) so desire, I (a.s.) would tell who it is who would be killing me, and I (a.s.) would say it’. So Al-Mamoun said, ‘O son (a.s.) of Rasool-Allah (saww)! But rather, you (a.s.) are intending by this speech of yours (a.s.), the lightening from yourself (a.s.) and the handing over this command away from you, so that the people would be saying that you (a.s.) an ascetic in the world’. So Al-Ridha (a.s.) said: ‘By Allah (azwj)! I (a.s.) have never lied since my (a.s.) Lord (azwj) the High Created me (a.s.), and I (a.s.) am not an ascetic in the world for the sake of the world, and I (a.s.) am well away from what you are intending’. Al-Mamoun said, ‘And what do I intend?’ He (a.s.) said: ‘(would there be) the safety (for me (a.s.)) upon the (speaking of) the truth?’ He said, ‘For you (a.s.) is the safety’. He (a.s.) said: ‘You are intending by that, that the people would be saying that Ali (a.s.) Bin Musa Al-Ridha (a.s.) was not an ascetic in the world, but he (a.s.) was an ascetic for the sake of the world contained in it. Are you all not seeing how he (a.s.) accepted the reign, out of greed with regards to the Caliphate?’ So Al-Mamoun got angered. Then he said, ‘You (a.s.) always make me face what I dislike and have believed in my reign. So it is by Allah (azwj) that I swear, if you (a.s.) were to accept the mandate for the reign, then I shall inform you (a.s.) of it upon that, so if you were to do it (fine), or else I shall strike off your (a.s.) neck’. So Al-Ridha (a.s.) said: ‘Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic has Forbidden me (a.s.) to go towards the destruction by my (a.s.) own hands, therefore if the matter was upon this (striking off of my (a.s.) neck), so do whatever comes to you, and I (a.s.) shall accept that upon (the stipulations) that I (a.s.) shall neither bring anyone closer (appoint anyone for a post), nor disarm anyone (remove anyone from a post), nor break any tradition or any Sunnah, and that I (a.s.) shall be a remote advisor with regards to the matters (of the state). So, he was pleased from it by that and made him (a.s.) to be mandated for the reign upon abhorrence from him (a.s.), for that’.




حدثنا المظفر بن جعفر بن المظفر رضى الله عنه قال حدثنا جعفر بن محمد ابن مسعود، عن ابيه قال حدثنا محمد بن نصير، عن الحسن بن موسى قال روى اصحابنا عن الرضا " ع " انه قال له رجل اصلحك الله كيف صرت إلى ما صرت إليه من المأمون فكان انكر ذلك عليه فقال له أبو الحسن " ع " يا هذا انما افضل النبي أو الوصي؟ فقال لا بل النبي قال فايما أفضل مسلم أو مشرك؟ قال لا بل مسلم قال فان العزيز عزيز مصر كان مشركا وكان يوسف " ع " نبيا وان المأمون مسلم وانا وصى ويوسف سأل العزيز ان يوليه حين قال اجعلني على خزائن الارض انى حفيظ عليم والمأمون اجبرني ما أنا فيه وقال " ع " في قوله تعالى (اجعلني على خزائن الارض انى حفيظ عليم) قال حافظ لما في يدى عالم بكل لسان.


2. Al Muzaffar Bin Ja’far Al Muzaffar narrated to us, from Ja’far Bin Muhammad Ibn Masoud, from his father, from Muhammad Bin Naseyr, from Al Hassan Bin Musa who said, ‘Our companions reported from Al-Ridha (a.s.), that a man said to him (a.s.), ‘May Allah (azwj) Keep you (a.s.) well! How did you (a.s.) come to what Al-Mamoun wanted you (a.s.) to come to, and you (a.s.) kept on denying that to him?’ So Abu Al-Hassan (a.s.) said to him: ‘O you! But rather, is a Pophet (as) higher or a successor (as)?’ So he said, ‘No, but the Prophet (as) is’. He (a.s.) said: ‘So which one is higher, a Muslim or a Polytheist?’ He said, ‘No, but, a Muslim is’. He (a.s.) said: ‘Al-Aziz the ruler of Egypt was a Polytheist, and Yusuf (as) was a Prophet (as), and Al-Mamoun is a Muslim and I (a.s.) am a successor (a.s.), and Yusuf (a.s.) asked Al-Aziz to mandate him (as) for the reign where he (as) said [12:55] He said: Place me (in authority) over the treasures of the land, I am a good keeper, knowing well, and Al-Mamoun informed me (a.s.) of what I (a.s.) was to be’. And he (a.s.) said with regards to the Words of the High 12:55] Place me (in authority) over the treasures of the land, I am a good keeper, knowing well: ‘A keeper of whatever is in my (as) hands (under my (as) control), and a knower of every language’.




حدثنا احمد بن زياد الهمداني رحمه الله قال حدثنا علي بن ابراهيم بن هاشم عن ابيه عن الريان بن الصلت قال دخلت على علي موسى بن الرضا " ع " فقلت له يابن رسول الله ان الناس يقولون انك قبلت ولاية العهد مع اظهارك الزهد في الدنيا فقال " ع " قد علم الله كراهتي لذلك فلما خيرت بين قبول ذلك وبين القتل اخترت القبول على القتل ويحهم أما علموا ان يوسف " ع " كان نبيا رسولا فلما دفعته الضرورة إلى تولى خزائن العزيز قال له اجعلني على خزائن الارض انى حفيظ عليم ودفعتني الضرورة إلى قبول ذلك على اكراه واجبار بعد الاشراف على الهلاك على انى ما دخلت في هذا الامر إلا دخول خارج منه فالى الله المشتكى وهو المستعان.


3. Ahmad Bin Ziyad Al Hamdany narrated to us, from Ali Bin Ibrahim Bin Hashim, from his father, from Al Rayan Bin Al Salt who said, ‘I came to Ali (a.s.) Bin Musa Al-Ridha (a.s.), so I said to him (a.s.), ‘O son (a.s.) of Rasool-Allah (saww)! The people are saying that you (a.s.) accepted the rule (to be the heir apparent - ولاية العهد) along with your display of asceticism of the world’. He (a.s.) said: ‘Allah (azwj) the High Knows of my (a.s.) abhorrence to that. So when I (a.s.) chose between the acceptance of that and the killing, I (a.s.) chose to accept rather than be killed. Woe be unto them all! Yusuf (as) was a Prophet (as) and a Rasool (as), and when it became necessary to rule over the treasury of the king, he (as) said to him [12:55] He said: Place me (in authority) over the treasures of the land, I am a good keeper, knowing well, and it led me (a.s.) to the acceptance of that over my (a.s.) abhorrence and compulsion. After having overlooked the destruction, I (a.s.) did not enter into this matter except for the entering from the peripheries of it. So, it is to Allah (azwj) that I (a.s.) complain, and He (azwj) is the Support’.