1. The reason due to which the sky was named as ‘sky’ and the world as ‘world’, and the Hereafter as ‘Hereafter’, and the reason due to which Adam (as) was named ‘Adam’, and Hawwa (as) as ‘Hawwa’, and the Dirham as ‘Dirham’, and the Dinaar as ‘Dinaar’ for counting, and the reason for which it is said to the donkey, ‘Hurr’ – (Extract)

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حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد رضى الله عنه قال حدثنا محمد بن يعقوب عن علي بن محمد باسناده رفعه قال: أتى علي بن أبي طالب " ع " يهودى فقال يا أمير المؤمنين إنى أسألك عن أشياء إن أنت أخبرتني بها أسلمت، قال علي " ع " سلني يا يهودي عما بدالك فانك لا تصيب أحدا أعلم منها أهل البيت، فقال له اليهودي أخبرني عن قرار هذه الارض على ما هو، وعن شبه الولد أعمامه وأخواله، وعن أي النطفتين يكون الشعر والدم واللحم والعظم والعصب ولم سميت السماء سماء، ولم سميت الدنيا دنيا، ولم سميت الآخرة آخرة، ولم سمي آدم آدم، ولم سميت حواء حواء، ولم سمى الدرهم درهما، ولم سمى الدينار دينارا، ولم قيل للفرس أجد، ولم قيل للبغل عد، ولم قيل للحمار حر؟ وأما شبه الولد أعمامه وأخواله فإذا سبق نطفة الرجل نطفة المرأة إلى الرحم خرج شبه الولد إلى اعمامه، ومن نطفة الرجل يكون العظم والعصب وإذا سبق المرأة نطفة الرجل إلى الرحم خرج شبه الولد إلى أخواله، ومن نطفتها يكون الشعر والجلد واللحم لانها صفراء رقيقة. وسميت السماء سماء: لانها وسم الماء يعني معدن الماء. وانما سميت الدنيا دنيا: لانها ادنى من كل شئ. وسميت الآخرة آخرة لان فيها الجزاء والثواب. وسمى آدم آدم لانه خلق من أديم الارض، وذلك ان الله تعالى بعث جبرئيل عليه السلام وأمره ان يأتيه من أديم الارض بأربع طينات طينة بيضاء وطينه حمراء وطينة غبراء وطينة سوداء وذلك من سهلها وحزنها ثم أمره ان يأتيه باربع مياه: ماء عذب، وماء ملح، وماء مر، وماء منتن. ثم أمره ان يفرغ الماء في الطين وأدمه الله بيده فلم يفضل شئ من الطين يحتاج إلى الماء، ولا من الماء شئ يحتاج إلى الطين، فجعل الماء العذب في حلقه، وجعل الماء المالح في عينية، وجعل الماء المر في اذنيه، وجعل الماء المنتن في أنفه. وانما سميت حواء حواء لانها خلقت من الحيوان، وانما قيل للفرس أجد لان أول من ركب الخيل قابيل يوم قتل أخاه هابيل، وانشأ يقول: أجد اليوم وما ترك الناس دما فقيل للفرس أجد لذلك، وانما قيل للبغل عد، لان أول من ركب البغل آدم عليه السلام وذلك كان له ابن يقال معد، وكان عشوقا للدواب، وكان يسوق بآدم " ع " فإذا تقاعس البغل نادى يا معد سقها فألفت البغلة أسم معد، فترك الناس " ميم " معد وقالوعد وانما قيل للحمار حر لان أول من ركب الحمار حواء، وذلك انه كان لها حمارة وكانت تركبها لزيارة قبر ولدها هابيل فكانت تقول في مسيرها واحراه فإذا قالت الكلمات سارت الحمارة وإذا سكتت تقاعست فترك الناس ذلك وقالوا حر، وانما سمى الدرهم درهما، لانه دراهم من جمعه ولم ينفقه في طاعة الله أورثه النار، وانما سمى الدينار دينارا، لانه دار النار من جمعه ولم ينفقه في طاعة الله فاورثه النار. فقال اليهودي: صدقت يا أمير المؤمنين، إنا لنجد جميع ما وصفت في التوراة فاسلم على يده ولازمه حتى قتل يوم صفين.


1. Ali Bin Hamad Bin Muhammad narrated, from Muhammad Bin Yaqoub, from Ali Bin Muhammad, by his chain, raising it, said, ‘A Jew came to Ali (asws) Bin Abu Talib (asws), so he said, ‘O Amir Al-Momineen (asws)! I want to ask you about things, if you (asws) were to inform me of it, I will profess to Al-Islam’. Ali (asws) said: ‘Ask me (asws), O Jew, about whatever comes to you, for you will not come across anyone more knowledgeable of it than the People (asws) of the Household’. The Jew said to him, ‘Inform me about base of this earth, upon what is it, and about the resembling of the child to its paternal uncles and its maternal uncles, and about from which seeds do the hair, and the blood, and the flesh, and the bones, and the nerves come about, and why is the sky named as sky, and why is the world named as world, and why is the Hereafter named as Hereafter, and why is Adam (as) named as Adam (as), and why is Hawwa (as) named as Hawwa, and why is the Dirham named as Dirham, and why is the Dinaar named as Dinaar, and why is it said to the horse, ‘Ajad’, and why is it said to the mule, ‘Ad’, and why is it said to the donkey, ‘Hurr’?’ And as for the resemblance of the child with its paternal uncles and its maternal uncles, so if the seed of the man preceded the seed (egg) of the woman to the womb, the child would come out resembling its paternal uncle, and from the seed of the man are formed the bones and the veins. And if the (egg of the) woman precedes the seed of the man to the womb, the child would come out resembling its maternal uncles, and from her egg are formed the hair, and the skin, and the flesh, because it is yellow (and) thin. And the sky has been named as sky because it is ‘Wasm’ of the water, meaning its mine (quarry). And the world has been named as the world because it is the lowest (Adna) of everything. And the Hereafter has been named as Hereafter because therein is the Recompense and the Reward’. And Adam (as) has been named as Adam (as) because he (as) was Created from the crust (Adeym) of the earth, and that is Allah (azwj) the High Sent Jibraeel (as) and Commanded him (as) that he (as) should bring from the crust of the earth with four clays – a white clay, and a red clay, and barren clay, and black clay, and that is from its even (coastal) and its uneven (interior land). Then Allah (azwj) Commanded him (as) to bring four (types of) water – Fresh water, salty water, and bitter water, and rotten water. Then Allah (azwj) Commanded him (as) that he (as) should empty the water into the clay, and Allah (azwj) Kneaded it with His (azwj) Hands (Amir Al-Momineen (asws) carried out this for Allah (azwj)). Thus, there was nothing from the clay which was needy to the water, nor from the water which was needy to the clay. Then Allah (azwj) Made the fresh water to be in his (as) throat, and Made the salty water to be in his (as) eyes, and Made the bitter water to be in his (as) ears, and Made the rotten water to in his (asws) nose. But rather, Hawwa (as) has been named as Hawwa (as) because she (as) was Created from the Haywaan. But rather, it is said to the horse, ‘Ajad’ because the first one to ride the (cavalry) horse was Qabeel (la) on the day he (la) killed his (la) brother (as), and fabricated saying (humming), ‘Today I (la) have found (Ajad) blood what the people neglected’. Thus ‘Ajad’ is said for the horse due to that. But rather it is said to the mules ‘Ad’, because the first one to ride the mule was Adam (as), and that is he (as) had a son called Ma’ad, and he liked the animals, and he used to usher with Adam (as). So when the mule failed to perform, he (as) said: ‘O Ma’ad, quench it’. Thus, the name of the mule came to be accustomed with the name of Ma’ad. The people dropped the ‘M’ from ‘Ma’ad’, and said, ‘Ad’. But rather, it is said to the donkey, ‘Hurr’, because the first one to ride the donkey was Hawwa (as), and that is because she (as) had a donkey, and she (as) used to ride it for visitation of the grave of her (as) son (as) Habeel (as). She (as) used to say in her (as) journey, ‘Wahara’a’. So whenever she (as) said it, the donkey travelled, and when she (as) was silent, it stopped. So the people neglected that and have been saying ‘Hurr’. But rather, the Dirham has been named as a Dirham, because it is an important house, the one who gathers it and does not spend it in obedience to Allah (azwj) would inherit the Fire, and the Dinaar has been named as Dinaar, because it is a house of the Fire, the one who gathers it and does not spend it in the obedience to Allah (azwj), so he would inherit the Fire’. So the Jew said, ‘You (asws) have spoken the truth, O Amir Al-Momineen (asws). We find the entirety of what you (asws) have described, to be in the Torah’. He, thus professed to Al-Islam upon his (asws) hands, and necessitated it (to be with him (asws)) until he was killed on the day of (the battle of) Siffeen (fighting alongside Amir Al-Momineen (asws))’.